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Biographical Sketches
Council Bluffs
1883

AYLESWORTH, E. E.

Judge of Superior Court of city, came to Council Bluffs in October, 1866; opened a law office the same year; formed partnership with W. S. Williams in fall of 1867, and continued in that firm until the spring of 1872; he then formed partnership with James & Mynster, that being the time of the organization of the firm of James, Aylesworth & Mynster. Mr. Mynster withdrawing from the firm in 1879, James & Aylesworth continued in business together until the spring of 1882, when Mr. Aylesworth was elected Judge of Superior Court of Council Bluffs for a term of four years. He was born in Otsego County, N. Y., in 1838; was educated in Hartwick Seminary, New York, and Delaware Literary Institute, Delaware County, N. Y., and commenced the study of law in January, 1861, in Portlandville, N. Y., with R. M. Townsend. He was admitted to the bar at Binghampton, N. Y., May 12, 1863; commenced the practice of law the same year, at Portlandville, N. Y., and continued there until 1866. He ran for Judge of Circuit Court on the Democratic ticket against C. F. Loofbourow (present incumbent) Republican, and was defeated by a small majority, running, however, 2,800 ahead of party ticket. In politics, he is a Democrat. He is of English and Scotch descent.


ABBOTT, Edwin J.

Justice of the Peace, Council Bluffs,was born in London, Eng., May 27, 1841, and came to this country with his parents, who located at Cleveland, Ohio. He reeived his education in the preparatory schools of London, Eng., and the public schools of Cleveland, Ohio. In his early days he followed railroading in Ohio and the South. He was married, in Elyria, Ohio, in 1861, to Sarah A. Packer, sister of Mrs. John Hammer, and by this union they have been blessed with four children, two of whom are deceased. During the late war, he served as a private in the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and, after the close of the war, became a member of the Cleveland police force, and, while serving in that capacity received a wound which produced lockjaw. He arrived in Council Bluffs April 7. 1870, where he was elected Constable, and was afterward Dcputy Recorder of this county for three years. Ho then became book-keeper and manager for John Hammer, contractor and builder, which position he held six years, and, during that time, was three times elected Township Clerk of Kane Township, on the Republican ticket. After leaving Mr. Hammer, he was appointed Census Enumerator of the First Ward Council Bluffs in 1880, and in the fall of that year, was elected Justice of the Peace on the Republican ticket, and still holds that office. During the years 1880 and 1881, he was City Finance Clerk. He is the only charter member now belonging to the order of the original lodge of Knights of Pythias for a number of years; he was a member of the grand lodge of Knights of Pythias. He became a member of the I. O. O. F. at twenty-one years of age.


AHLES, John E.

Blacksmith, Council Bluffs, came to this city in 1856, and was employed on the Utah expedition against the Mormons, and shortly afterward was engaged by the Western Stage Co. to conduct their blacksmith shops located here. In 1860, he started in business for himself, and carried it on with great success. In 1859, he went to California, but returned the following year. While absent, he was engaged in an Indian fight, and he still carries a ball in his body as a token of remembrance of that occasion. When Abraham Lincoln was here in 1858, he (subject) was instructed by N. S. Bates, city agent of the Western Stage Co., and also an old neighbor of Mr. Lincoln's to show him all possible courtesy, and to take him down on the bottom and show him his large farm, which mission Mr. Ahles fulfilled, and on their return the party stopped at a saloon, near where Lentzinger's bakery now stands, and all with the exception of Mr. Lincoln took a glass of beer, he remarking that he "would take a drink if he felt like it." In Basil, Switzerland, is the seat of the largest German and Swiss institution for missionary purposes. In 1857, they sent out two missionaries and four colonists among the Crow and Blackfeet Indians that were roaming about the Black Hills. They stayed among them two years, when, through the influence of Canadian missionaries, their huts were burned and four killed, the remaining two returning to Council Bluffs. These latter were very positive of the existence of gold in the Black Hills, which fact our subject published in the Allentown Weltburger, and also in Frank Leslie's Illustrated, this being the first knowledge of gold existing in the Black Hills. Our subject claims to be the first man to correspond in German with the Eastern press from Colorado, Utah and Nevada. The Germans of Council Bluffs celebrated the one hundredth anniversary ofthe birth of the poet Schiller, and soon after our subject recevied a letter from the daughter of the poet, thanking them for the honor shown her father's memory. Mr. Ahles enlisted in the Fifth Iowa Cavalry, but was rejected on account of physical disabilities. He has built many small houses for poor tenants, many of whom are to-day thanking him for their homes. Mr. Ahles' shop is situated on South Main street, where he does general blacksmithing and wagon work. He has twice been a member of the Democratic State Convention, and once a member of the National Convention of the Democratic party.



AMENT, W. S.

Attorner, Council Bluffs, has been a resident of Council Bluffs since August 13, 1877. On the 15th of the same month, he became the junior member of the firm of Sapp, Lyman & Ament. He remained a member of this firm for three and a half years, when he formed a new partnership under the firm name of Ament & Sims, which still exists. Mr. Ament is a native of Princeton, Bureau Co., Ill. He graduated from the high school of his native town, and then went to Lincoln, Ill.; he had spent about two years there as a salesman, when he was appointed Deputy County Clerk, and held that position but three months, when he was appointed Deputy Circuit Clerk, and discharged the duties of that position for about two years; he then began the study of law with Mr. D. H. Harts, of Lincoln, with whom he remained two years, and then attended and subsequently graduated from the Albany law school of Albany, N. Y. Since becoming a resident of Council Bluffs, he has devoted his time exclusively to the practice of law, and has met with good success.


ATKINS, Charles

Railroad Pool Commissioner, Council Bluffs,was born in Maine in 1831; was educated in his native State, and, when twenty years of age, went to California, where he remained four years. In 1856, he came to Iowa, and settled in Onawa, where he engaged in merchandising. In 1873, he left Onawa, and began railroading on the Union Pacific Railroad, and, in 1875, was tendered the position of General Agent of the Chicago & North-Western Railroad. In the spring of 1880, he went to Colorado as President of the Colorado Mining, Smelting & Investment Company, which position he still holds. In Onawa, Iowa, in 1860, he married Miss Mary Sears, of that place, and they have one child, Carrie, aged twenty years. Mrs. Atkins' father kept the Pacific House in Council Bluffs in 1854. Mr. Atkins is at present Pool Commissioner for the Iowa lines at the Transfer Yards of Council Bluffs.


ARBUTHNOT, Mrs. L. C.

Milliner, Council Bluffs, was born in Pittsburgh, Penn., and lived there until her marriage. Her husband, George B. Arbuthnot, died in 1865. He was a cotton broker in the South, and lost his property in the rebellion. They had one boy - George W. Arbuthnot, aged twenty-two years, who is now in Omaha. Mrs. Arbuthnot employs twelve girls in her millinery and dressmaking establishment. She came to Council Bluffs in 1865, from New Orleans, where her husband formerly lived.


BAIRD, J. W.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born in Morgantown, W. Va. He came to Council Bluffs in the fall of 1862, where he has ever since resided. He was educated in Council Bluffs Public Schools and at Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa. He graduated from the former school in 1870, in the first class ever graduating from that school, and from the latter institution in the spring of 1874, having at that time conferred upon him the degree of B. S., and in 1877 the honorable degree of M. S., from the same college. He commenced reading law with Sapp & Lyman in 1878. Was admitted to practice the same year, and in the fall of 1878 was elected Justice of the Peace of Council Bluffs, which otfice he has ever since held. He is of Irish descent.


BALDWIN, John N.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born in Council Bluffs July 9, 1857, where he has since resided. He was educated at the Iowa State University, graduating from the law department in June, 1877. He began the practice of law in Council Bluffs as a member of the firm of Rising, Wright & Baldwin. In 1880, Rising left for Colorado, and the firm then changed to Wright & Baldwin, as it now stands. Mr. Baldwin has achieved remarkable success as an attorney, which, perhaps, is due to his natural ability as an orator, though, as a sharp, shrewd and far-seeing lawyer, he ranks among the old attorneys of his native city. Every succeeding year since he began practicing has found him higher in the estimation of the people, and deeper in the mysteries of law. Future honors may be easily won by him, if the past may be any criterion from which to judge. In December of 1878, he was married to Miss Lilla G. Holeomb, of Cedar Rapids, Iowa.


BARKE, J. F.

Excelsior Gallery, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1879 from England and opened up business on First avenue, between Main and Pearl streets. He has a branch gallery at Missouri Valley, Iowa. He employs four assistants. In the fall of 1881, he introduced the new instantaneous gelatine bromide process, he being the first to introduce it in the West. It has proved an eminent success. He was born, in 1844, in Warwickshire, England. Cama to the United States in 1874, and soon after returned, and came back here in 1879. Mr. Barke is about to re-model his operating room, which will then be the finest in the State. He has met with great success with children's photographs.


BARSTOW, James M.

Physician, Council Bluffs, was born in Peoria County, Ill., in 1854. His parents moved to a point in Mills County, this State, called New Bethlehem, and in 1865, returned to Illinois, where, after staying two years, they came to this county. Our subect was educated at the Keokuk College of Pharmacy and Surgery, from which institution he graduated in March, 1880. He took special courses in Obstetrics, Surgery and Analytical Chemistry; he has one of the finest medical libraries in the city; he was married in September, 1881, to Miss Lizzia Knabe, of Council Bluffs. Mrs. Barstow died June 6 of the following year; she was well known and greatly beloved by the people of this community, being a popular and respected teacher in our public schools.


BATTIN, Vincent

Carpenter, Council Bluffs, was born in Ohio in 1833; left home in1853, and went to Indiana, where he stayed four years. He has traveled quite extensively; has been in Kansas, Colorado and Idaho, and was married in the latter place in 1866. He moved to Council Bluffs from Idaho in 1867; opened a carpenter shop on Broadway, and has lately erected his present building; he does a business averaging $15,000 annually, aud gives employment to eight men; he superintended the rebuilding of the Ogden House, and also built the Everett Block, on the corner of Broadway and Pearl streets. His mother is living in Davis County, Iowa, and is seventy years of age; his father died in Davis County Iowa. Mr. Battin is a staunch Republican, and takes a deep interest in political affairs.


BECHTEL, Peter

Proprietor of Bechtel's Hotel, Council Bluffs, is a native of Bavaria, Germany, born in 1827, and came to America in 1854. After traveling for a short time, he located in Chicago, where he remained one year, after which he went to Lake Superior. After remaining there a few months, he went, in 1856, to La Crosse, where he remained till 1859, when he removed to St. Joseph, Mo.; he remained in St. Joseph for two years, and carried on the restaurant business there, and, in 1861, came to Council Bluffs; here he opened a hotel, and in 1864, bought his present stand, which he refitted and improved in 1867; he does a good business, having from fifty to sixty boarders, and being also well patronized by transient guests. In Havre de Grace, in 1854, he married Miss Anna Wentzl, of the Tyrol, Germany, and by this union they have been blessed with two children - Louis, twenty-six, and Anna, twenty-four years of age.



BECK BROTHERS

Grocers, Council Bluffs. Peter Beck now has control of the business of this firm, his brother, Charles Beck, having died August 8, 1881. The style of the firm, however, yet remains - Beck Brothers. They commenced business July 19, 1879, in the house occupied by them now, 600 South Main St. Their stock when beginning business amounted to $1,500, and their annual sales were $20,000. The firm has on hand at present about $4,000 stock, and the annual sales now amount to $30,000. Mr. Beck attends in the store himself and has two salesmen besides. Peter Beck was born at Bingen on the Rhine, Germany, in 1854. His parents removed to this country when he was but six years old, and came to St. Joseph, Mo., where they lived one year. They then moved to Omaha, remained there a year, and then came to Council Bluffs, where he has ever since resided. He was educated in the public schools of Council Bluffs.



BECKMAN, Charles J.

Harness-maker, Council Bluffs, was born in Bavaria in 1840. He arrived in New York December 26, 1856, and started at once for Chicago, where he worked at his trade of harness-making. In March, 1861, he went to Naperville, Ill., where, in the following May, he enlisted in the Thirteenth Illinois Infantry, and served till November 29, 1863; he was at the battle of Ringgold, Ga., and afterward, under Gen. Grant, at Lookout Mountain aud Mission Ridge, where he lost his right arm. He was discharged in March, 1864, at Hospital No. 19, in Nashville, Tenn.; he returned to Naperville, Ill., where he remained until May 1, 1870, at which time he came to Council Bluffs and opened in business; he moved to his present location January 1, 1877, and furnishes employment to six men. Our subject is of a family of ten children; his mother is still living with him, at the age of seventy-four; his father died in Naperville, Ill., aged seventy-two. Mr. Beckman was married, in Council Bluffs, July 19, 1874, to Paulina W. Vogeler. Her parents live in Oak Township, Mills County, this State.



BEEBE, C. A.

Of C. A. Beebe & Co., dealers m furniture and crockery, Council Bluffs, was born in Caldwell County, Mo., in 1836. He came with his parents in 1838 to Iowa, soon after went to Lima, Ill.; returned here in 1848, and followed farming for fourteen years. He began business here in 1867; built his present business house in 1880, and is doing a good trade, carrying a stock of about $15,000, employing two assistants, and doing an annual business of from $35,000 to $40,000. He keeps a fine stock of furniture, crockery and glassware; he also does an extensive jobbing business. He was married in 1857, and has a family of four daughters and one son. The latter who is twenty-four years of age, has an interest in the business. His family are all at home.


BEECROFT, Henry

Livery, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1860, and engaged in teaming. He commenced draying in 1865, with one team, and kept increasing until at present he has four teams at work. He bought his livery stable September 9, 1882, but still keeps three teams at work draying and two cabs running; he has fourteen horses in livery stock, besides several boarders; he employs five men. Mr. Beecroft was born in England in 1840, and came to the United States in 1851, his parents settling in Missouri. In two years, they removed to Salt Lake, our subject remaining there three years; he was married, in 1863, to Miss Mary Reeves, of Council Bluffs, and they have eight children, equally divided, four boys and four girls. Mr. Beeeroft is a Republican in politics.



BENNETT, John

County Treasurer, Council Bluffs, is one of that class of citizens of Pottawattamie County whose name is familiar to almost every citizen in the county, and who is very frequently spoken of as one of the first settlors, and the assertion is a true one, as in 1853, when Council Bluffs was but a small frontier trading or outfitting point, he, with his uncle, John, became residents of the place. None, not even the most enthusiastic in their predictions, ever supposed that a quarter of a century could make so much difference as to change the rough frontier town to the city of to-day. Equally important and progressive have been the changes in the lives of some of the first comers to the town, and of this number, the life of Mr. Bennett, is perhaps as remarkable as any. Born in Allegheny City, Penn., in July, 1832, he w.as left an orphan at six years of age in care of his uncle, John Keller, his father dying when he was two years old, and his mother when he was six. His uncle becoming a resident of Cincinnati, Ohio, the most of his early life was spent and his education received in that city. In 1853, as before stated, he became a resident of Council Bluffs. He spent about three years as clerk in a store, and then engaged in the lumber trade, at which he continued until 1862; from that date until 1867, he was a salesman in the store of J. M. Philips. The following three years he spent in the grocery trade on his own account, and only quit it to accept the office of Auditor of the County, an office which he filled with so much credit as to be re-elected to the same position for five consecutive terms of two years each. As a further honor, in October, 1881, he was elected to the office of Treasurer of the county, for a two years' term, and is now engaged in the discharge of his duties. He has been dependent almost wholh' upon his own resources, and though he labored under many disadvantages when young, he now stands among the substantial citizens of the county, financially, and and by an honorable career, he has builded for himself a reputation for which he may be allowed a pardonable pride.


BENO, John

Of John Beno & Co., merchants, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in the spring of 1861, with his brother, and lived with him one year; when his brother moved away, he then lived with Mr. W. D. Turner during the latter part of 1861 and all of 1862, during which time he attended the public schools of Council Bluffs, and in 1863 lived with Mr. H. C. Nult, working in an express office, and then entered the store of J. L. Foreman as salesman, and held that position until the spring of 1866, Mr. Foreman going out of the business at that time. Mr. Beno then engaged as salesman with Johnson, SpratIan & Co., with whom he stayed until July of that year, when he formed a partnership with Mr. Foreman, the firm being Foreman & Beno. He remained in partnership with Mr. Foreman until August, 1879, when Mr. Beno withdrew from the firm, and he then took a vacation and went on a visit to his parents at Portland, Oregon. He returned to Council Bluffs, and in the fall of 1880 opened up a general merchandise store at 18th Main and 17th Pearl streets, Council Blufts, length of store-room 102 feet, width twenty feet. The stock of general goods is on ground floor, and the store-room and clothing department in upper story, the building being two stories high. Mr. Beno was born in Alsace, France (now Germany), in 1845, and at seven years of age came to America. He first lived in St. Louis six years, then removed to St. Joseph, Mo.; lived there three years and then came to Council Bluffs. He married in 1872, Elizabeth M. Robertson, of Little Sioux, Iowa, formerly of Council Bluffs. Mr. Beno has associated with him in business his two nephews, A. F. Beno and Charles Beno, two estimable young gentlemen.


BOND, Napoleon J.

Grain-dealer, Council Bluffs, was born near Waterloo, Ill., in 1832, and is a descendent of the Bond family who came to America in 1634, with Lord Baltimore, and assisted in founding the city of Baltimore. In 1781, a great-great-uncle came to Kaskaskia, Ill., with Gen. George Rogers Clark, who was followed, about the year 1800, by Shadrack Bond, who was elected the first Governor of Illinois, in 1819, about which time Shadrack G. Bond, father of Napoleon, came to Illinois. The subject of this sketch remembers manv of the thrilling incidents related to him by his family of the early pioneers of Illinois. After receiving a common school education, he taught school for a time, and read law with Colonel, afterward Governor, Bissell, of Illinois. A favorable opportunity offering, he went into the business of merchandising at Waterloo, Ill., in 1852. Closed out in 1853. and removed to Sulphur Springs. Mo., where he carried on the mercantile business for a year and a half, and while engaged in business studied medicine, and in 1855 sold out, and went to Carlyle, Ill., where he continued the study of medicine, until he again engaged in business for himself, in 1857, in which he remained but a short time. Removed to Trenton, Ill., where he again embarked in the mercantile business, and failed in 1859. Closed up affairs, and again took up the law, and in the spring of 1861, crossed the plains to Colorado, with the gold-seekers, and was fortunate enough to strike a bonanza in the shape of a gold mine called the Phillips, at Buckskin Joe, which was the leading mine of Colorado in 1861. He was, soon after his arrival in the mining camp, elected President and Judge of the district, which position he held until the Territorial organization. Was a member and President of the Council of the first Colorado Legislature, and assisted in organizing the Territorial Government of Colorado. Left Colorado in 1863, and went to Virginia City, Mont., in 1864, with the gold excitement there, engaged in mining and merchandising, and in the spring of 1865 removed to Helena, where he built one of the first houses built in that city, and saw Johnny Keen, alias Bob Black, hung on hangman's tree, who was the first of sixteen hung on it at different times. Closed out in the fall of 1865, and returned to the States; fitted out a mule train and freighted across the plains; again to Virginia City, Mont., in 1866, where he engaged in business, and in March, 1867, started with his train and goods for Salmon River Mines, Idaho; the severest weather of the winter was experienced after his leaving, the thermometer ranging from zero to 47° below: but by making sleds, which he had to do, with the mercury 20° below, and placing his wagons on them, was enabled to cross the main snowy range of the Rocky Mountains, over snow from three feet to forty feet deep, which feat he accomplished without frost biting a man. or losing a single mule, and claims to be the first and only person who ever successfully crossed the main snowy range of the Rocky Mountains with a train in the middle of the winter. Arriving at Salmon River, seventeen miles from the mines, at the foot of the mountains, in company with Col. George L. Shoup, they laid out a town which they named Salmon City, which in about two weeks had a population of 1,200 inhabitants. But the mines proving a partial failure, a stampede set in from them, and in three months there were only about 100 out of the 1,200 left. After an eventful season, he closed out, and returned to the States, stopping on his way home at Council Bluffs, where an opportunity offered, and in the spring of 1868 engaged in the grain, produce, hide and wool business, with Thatcher and Mulholland, under the firm name of Bond, Thatcher & Co., which was dissolved in the spring of 1869, N. J. Bond continuing the business. In 1872, the hide and wool business was sold to Oberne, McDonald & Co., and the balance of the business closed out, after which he removed to Vermillion, Dak., where he bought grain during that year, and loaded the first steamboat load of wheat ever shipped out of the Territory, and after a successful trade over the Dakota Southern Railroad, the following year, again returned to Council Bluffs, and in the fall of 1874 again went into the grain and produce trade in Council Bluffs, in which he has continued until the present time. During the most of the time, he has been working and developing his old mine in Colorado, which he has at last succeeded in developing into a second Bonanza. Although a life-long Methodist, he, with his wife, who was a Mrs. Harvey, whose maiden name was McClelland, are now both members of the Presbyterian Church of Council Bluffs.


BOTLE, H. S.

Commission merchant, Council Bluffs, was born in a railroad camp in 1837. This was the Albany & Schenectady Railroad, which was the second railroad built in the United States. It is now a branch of the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. Up to the present year, our subject has been in the railroad business all of his life. He helped to build the first railroad in Texas; he built the Wisconsin Central from Stevens Point to Ashland; he built the last ten miles of Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, at the Council Bluffs end of that road, employing from 10,000 to 15,000 meu; he contracted for and built five miles of the Wabash Railroad in Mills County, this State. July 1, 1882, he opened in this present business; he keeps a stock of wood, coal, flour, feed, etc., and does a general commission business. He was married at Darlington, Wis., in January, 1861, to Miss Matilda M. Durst, of Erie, Peun., a cousin of Gen. Robert E. Lee, of rebellion fame. Mr. and Mrs. Boyle have two children - Harry E., aged eighteen years, and Lelia N., aged thirteen. Our subject's father died in Erie, Penn., in 1845, at the age of seventy. The mother died in McGregor, this State, in 1868, being seventy-six years old.


BOUQUET, Paul

Livery, Council Bluffs, born in New York in 1848. From his native State he moved successively to Ohio, Michigan, Omaha, Neb., aud Anally, to Council Bluffs in 1872. He started a livery stable with eight horses. At present, he owns two livery barns, one on North Madison street, and the other on lower Broadway. He has a fine residence on Stutsman street, and also a farm in Nebraska. Mr. Bouquet is a public-spirited man; always ready to lend his aid to every legitimate enterprise. His mother is living at Grand Island, Neb., and is sixty-five years old; his father died in Saginaw, Mich., in 1875, leaving a family of twelve children, all of whom are living except one, Martha, who died in 1880, at Flint, Mich. Our subject was married in Council Bluffs, in 1873. He has two children - Mabel, aged five years, and Bud, who is three years old.


BOWMAN, Thomas

Mayor, Council Bluffs, has been a resident of the city since 1867. He first entered the employ of John Hammer, contractor and builder; next spent two years with J. P. & J. N. Casady, real estate dealers, and left them to take the management of the Crystal Mills at Council Bluffs. He held the office of City Assessor during 1872-73-74 and 1875, four terms, resigning in the latter year to accept the office of Treasurer of Pottawattamie County, to which he was elected by the Democratic party. This is a two years' term office, and Mr. Bowman held it for three consecutive terms. In 1881, he was elected Mayor of the city of Council Bluffs. He has been connected with the fire department of the city since 1868, and is Captain of Rescue Hose Company, No. 3. In 1881, the firm of Bowman, Rohrer & Co. was organized. Their principal business is storage and commission. Mr. Bowman was born in 1848 in Wiscasset, Me. He has a full genealogical history of his family, by which his ancestry is traced to English origin. His family was represented in the pilgrims of the Mayflower. He has been remarkably successful as a business man, and his position is among the best society of the city.


BOYD, John F.

Superintendent of the Transfer Stock Yards, Council Bluffs, was born in Worcester County, Mass., in 1845, and in 1865 came to Council Bluffs, where he engaged in the stock business, in the interest of which he spent four years in Texas. In January 1880, he was appointed to his present position, Superintendent of the Transfer Stock Yards at Council Bluffs, which he ably fills, having under his direction about twenty-three men. Mr. Boyd was married in Massachusetts in 1874, and has three children - Leon Lovell, aged six years; Mable A., aged three years, and Lulu, eight months old.


BRESEE, Rev. P. F.

One of the most active members of the Iowa clergy, was born in the township of Franklin, Delaware County, N. Y., December 31, 1838. His father. P. P. Bresee, at that time farming in Franklin, is a native of the same county, as is also his mother, Susan, daughter of Luke Brown, who came to Delaware County from Massachusetts at an early day. Mr. and Mrs. Bresee had one daughter and two sons - Diantha, P. F. our subject, and Reed, who died at one year of age. Diantha married Mr. Giles Cowley in New York. They all came West, pursued farming in Iowa County, this State, for a time, then removed to Des Moines in 1864, and engaged in milling and merchandising, and, in 1872, came to Council Bluffs, where Mrs. Cowley died April 20, 1875, leaving one son, Fred. P. F. Bresee, our subject, attended the common schools of his native home, and later the Franklin Seminary. He spent a portion of his youth in a general store in Davenport, in which his father for several years owned an interest. He experienced a change of heart at sixteen years of age, joined the Methodist Church in Davenport, Delaware County, and from that time was inclined to the work of the ministry. Two years later he came West, with a view of ultimately entering the religious field. Owing to a great need of ministerial workers in Iowa, he almost immediately joined the Iowa Conference. Although being at that time but eighteen years of age, he was assigned a charge as junior Pastor of the Marengo work, comprising six or eight appointments. It was a year of hard work, but success crowned his labors, and the church was greatly strengthened. Mr. Bresee first came to Council Bluffs in 1870 as Pastor of the Broadway M. E. Church, and remained there three years. He labored earnestly for the prosperity of the church, and during his pastorate the membership was greatly increased, and a much higher state of spiritual power was enjoyed. He has ever been careful to educate his people on every moral question, and has ever been a radical temperance man. He was sent as delegate to the General Conference in 1872, held at Brooklyn, N. Y. From Council Bluffs he labored at Red Oak, Iowa, three years, then in Clarinda three years, and next in Creston two years, and, in 1881, he returned to Council Bluffs, where he is now actively engaged in a new and most important work of organizing a new society and erecting a magnificent new church edifice. Mr. Bresee has been assigned this special work because of his well-established reputation as a worker, an organizer and a man of marked executive ability. The success of this enterprise at the time of writing is assured by large subscriptions of money, and the efficient manner in which Mr. Bresee has thus far conducted the business, not only contributing to the work his undivided attention, but liberally from his private purse. Mr. Bresee has been engaged in the work of the ministry for more than twenty-five years, and during the entire time in the State. He first joined and worked in the Iowa Conference until 1864, when that Conference was divided, and his field of labor put into the Des Moines Conference. July 31, 1860, he married Miss Maria E. Hebbard, daughter of Horace and Samantha (Hoyt) Hebbard. Mr. Hebbard was a native of the Empire State, and a farmer by occupation. Mrs. Hebbard was born in the State of Connecticut. They had two sons and three daughters - R. L., Debora, N. H., Maria E. and Mary. Mrs. B. was born November 15, 1836. She received her education at the schools in Davenport, Delaware Co., N. Y., where she lived until after her marriage. Mr. and Mrs. Bresee have had seven children, six of whom are now living. The second child - Lillie M., died when fifteen mouths old. Ernest H., the oldest, is now in college. Phineas W., Bertha, Paul, Melvin and Susie are at home. Mr. Bresee, besides attending to his pastoral duties, finds time to devote to outside business, and has been fortunate in making modest investments in mining stocks, upon which he has received handsome margins, and now owns stock in several of the most prolific mines of Mexico and Arizona, with the returns from which he is enabled to gratify a life-long desire to promote the prosperity of and spread the word of God.



BREWER, M. P.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, has been a resident of Council Bluffs since 1867. He is a native of Oneida County, N. Y., where he graduated from Hamilton College of Clinton. He subsequently graduated from the law department of the Michigan University, of Ann Arbor, after which he came to Council Bluffs, and spent one year in the law office of Judge Caleb Baldwin. In the spring of 1868, he began practice with Mr. Hart, under the firm name of Hart & Brewer. In one year's time the firm again changed, and became Clinton, Hart & Brewer. Business was done by this firm until May, 1882, when Mr. Hart changed his residence to Minneapolis, Minn., and Mr. Clinton retired from business. Mr. Brewer has since continued in practice at the old office, in the Officer & Pusey bank building.


BROWN, George C.

Dentist, Council Bluffs, was born in Watertown, N. Y., February 11, 1859; removed, in 1869, to Council Bluffs, where he received his education in the public schools. He has lived in Council Bluffs ever since, with the exception of the time spent in acquiring his knowledge of dentistry. He began studying dentistry with Austin & Darby, of St. Joseph, Mo., in the spring of 1877, and in the fall of that year entered the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery. In the spring of 1878, he returned to the office of Austin & Darby, where he pursued the study of his chosen profession, and in the fall of the same year entered the University of Pennsylvania, from which he graduated March 12, 1879. In the summer of that year he began the practice of dentistry corner of Pearl street and Broadway, Council Blufls. His office is now in room 11, in the same block, on Pearl street.



BROWN, J. J.

Railroad contractor, Council Bluffs, is a native of Ireland; was born in 1833, and in 1845 came to the United States with his parents, who settled in Springfield, Mass. He came to Chicago in the spring of 1849, thence to Dubuque, Iowa, in 1853, and in 1865 came to Council Bluffs, where he engaged as a contractor on the Chicago & North-Western Railroad. In Council Bluffs, in 1867, he married Miss Ryan, and by this union they have one daughter - Nora M., aged twelve years, now attending school in South Bend, Ind. In 1868, he engaged in the hardware business under the firm name of Brown & Ryan, in which he continued for three years, then sold out, and in 1870 went to Texas, where he built 200 miles of the International Railroad, now the Texas Pacific. In 1862, he enlisted in the Twelfth Iowa Infantry; in 1863, was transferred into the Sixth Iowa Cavalry, in which he held the rank of First Lieutenant. In 1865, he enlisted in the regular army as Captain of the Commissionary department, and the same year left the service, being in the army in all four years and six months. He is a supporter of the Democratic party.


BRYANT, Judge A. S.

Retired, Council Bluffs, whose portrait appears in this work, was born in Powhatan County, Va., twenty miles from Richmond, July 1, 1803. When he was nine years old, his parents moved to Georgia, and soon after to Frankfort, Ky., where he was reared and educated, and where in 1831, he married Miss P. G. Montgomery. In 1849, he was elected County Judge of Putnam County, Mo., and in 1852 came to Council Bluffs, and engaged in buying and selling real estate. He owns twelve houses in Council Bluffs, and also has a fine tract of land near, consisting of 250 acres. He speaks very highly of the early Mormon settlers here, whom he describes as honest and industrious. He was a friend of Orson Hyde, the Mormon elder, who was at Council Bluffs in 1852; the dispute between the Mormons and Gentiles at that time being settled by Judge Bryant and Elder Hyde, who were chosen arbitrators. When Judge Bryant first came to Council Bluffs it was a place of about five hundred inhabitants, but there were flush times then and money was plentiful. He auctioned off at one time $12,000 worth of cattle where the Broadway Methodist Church now stands. He carried $3,000 in gold on his person from Council Bluffs to Missouri, a journey at that time attended with considerable peril to the traveler. His success in life has been owing to his untiring energy and industry. He spends the winter seasons at Beebe, White Co., Ark., where he owns some property. His name in full is Archibald S. Bryant; has no children; is an uncle of R. T. Bryant, of Council Bluffs.


BRYANT, Reuben T.

Real estate and mining, Council Bluffs, was born in Scotland County, Mo., in 1837, and is of Scotch-Irish descent, although his ancestors came to this country many generations past and settled in Virginia. He remained in Scotland County, Mo., until the spring of 1851, when he came to Council Bluffs, and after living there a year and a half, moved back to Scotland County, Mo. He received his education in the schools of Scotland County and Council Bluffs. He returned to Council Bluffs in 1863, and attended school, and also taught until 1866, when he went to Chicago and took a business course in Eastman's Business College. Returning to Council Bluffs the following year, he taught school for two years, then engaged in real estate business. In December, 1869, he went to Avoca, Iowa, where he engaged in general merchandising until the fall of 1872, when he was elected Clerk of Court on the Republican ticket, and he accordingly sold out his business in Avoca and entered upon his duties as Clerk in January, 1873, and held that position for four years. During this time he had carried on the real estate business, and on leaving the Clerk's office he gave his attention to that business. In the spring of 1879, he took a trip to Colorado, and while there became connected in the mining business with the Seneca Mining & Tunnel Company, and the R. T. Bryant Mining Company (named after subject), and afterward became interested in some placer mines located on Mandano Creek, on the south side of Sangre de Christo Mountains, Col., in San Luis Valley, and in some copper mines on Pass Creek, the company being known as the Huerfano Mining Company. At Council Bluffs, in 1872, Mr. Bryant married Miss Anna C. Drain, of that city, and by this union they have been blessed with one child - Fannie Anna, aged four years.



BUFFINGTON, J. W.

Book-keeper for Erb & Duquette, Council Bluffs, was born at Taneytown, Carroll Co., Md., November 10, 1847, and is of English descent. His father was Chief Judge of the Orphans' Court of Carroll County, Md., for eight years. When subject was nine years of age, he moved with his parents to Baltimore, Md. He received his education at Irving College, Manchester, Md., and took a business course at Bryant & Stratton's Business College, Baltimore, Md. He first began business in 1866 as salesman with Delphey & Shorb, dry goods merchants, with whom he remained about a year; then entered the store of F. H. Elliott, Taneytown, Md., remaining there till 1870. He then engaged in farming and dairy business, near Baltimore, Md., and continued in that occupation till February, 1875, when he came to Council Bluffs and there engaged as salesman with J. W. Laing, with whom he remained till 1876. He then returned to Maryland and engaged with his former employer, F. H. Elliott, for two years, when he returned to Council Bluffs and again engaged with J. W. Laing, and after being two years in his employ accepted his present position of book-keeper for Erb & Duquette, wholesale confectioners and fruiterers, of Council Bluffs. They are the largest dealers in their line west of Chicago.



BURHORN, E.

Jeweler, Council Bluffs, was born in Germany in 1840; in 1866, came to the United States, and in 1869 to Council Bluffs. He worked six months for C. B. Jacquimin & Co., and in 1870 commenced business on his own account. He has been successful in his business, which is constantly increasing; he carries a $7,000 stock, and employs an assistant. In 1878, he married Miss Mollie L. Woods, of Council Bluffs, and they have one child - Frank, aged three and a half years.



BURKE, F. A.

City Auditor, Council Bluffs, became a resident of Pottawattamie County as early as 1856. He first settled in that part of the county' now known as Washington Township, and was the second settler there. He remained there for about three years and then came to Council Bluffs. He was filling the office of Justice of the Peace when he came to the town, Kane Township at that time embracing the territory of which Washington Township was a part. He removed to Council Bluffs in 1869, and continued to hold the office of Justice by reelection until 1879. In 1869, he was also elected to the office of City Recorder, and was retained in that ofllce by reelection by the Republican party until 1879. He was then out for one ycar, but was again elected to the same office, holding it until the spring of 1882, when the charter was abolished and the Superior Court established, when he was elected City Auditor, which office he is now filling. During the war of the rebellion he was appointed Assistant United States Assessor, and held that office until 1869. His life, spent in Council Bluffs, has been such as to reflect only credit upon himself. He is a native of Washington County, Penn., where he was born July 17, 1815. For about ten years prior to his moving West he had resided in Wheeling, W. Va. In social circles he has taken quite an active part. He is a charter member of Twin Brother Encampment, No. 42, I. O. O. F., and since the organization of the Odd Fellows Protective Association on December 5, 1870, he has been its President. His first marriage was to Miss Eliza J. Smith, a native of Fayefte County, Penn. His two sons, William S. and Hugh M., were born of this marriage. They were both in the Federal army during the rebellion, the former holding the office of Lieutenant. William S. was also the first publisher of the Daily Nonpareil of Council Bluffs. He is now at Alberqurque, N. M., and Hugh M. is in San Francisco. Mr. Burke's second marriage was while he was a resident of Wheeling, W. Va., to Miss Margaret McMillen, who was also born in Pennsylvania. There are five sons and one daughter living who were born of this marriage. The elder sons have already distinguished themselves as members of the legal profession, and the younger bid fair to occupy an equally honorable position in the community.


BURROUGHS, Amelia

Physician, Council Bluffs, was born in Wellington, Ohio, a few miles from Cleveland. From early childhood, she manifested a passion for the study of medicine and surgery. She was educated in Cleveland and graduated at the Homeopathic Hospital College in March, 1881. She was Dispensary Physician at the Woman's Dispensary connected with the college. She has a large and steadily-increasing practice in Council Bluffs. She was married, in 1873, at Cleveland, Ohio, and has one child - Willie.



BURROUGHS, J. H.

Real estate, Council Bluffs, was born in Onondaga County, N. Y., in June, 1820, and is of English descent. He was one of the originators of the Wyoming Mutual Insurance Company, of which he was General Manager at Warsaw, N. Y. In the spring of 1868, he came West and located at Council Bluffs, where he has since resided. Since he came to Council Bluffs, he has been engaged in the real estate and loan business. He is now and has been for two years Overseer of the Poor. He is a supporter of the Republican party.


BUSHNELL, D. W.

Book and news dealer, Council Bluffs, was born in Ashtabula County, Ohio, in 1844; was educated there, and remained till 1859, when he moved to Boone, Boone Co., Iowa, where he lived on a farm two years; he then entered the army as a private in Fifteenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and, at the close of the war returned to Boone, where he filled the office of Deputy County Treasurer for two years; he then engaged in the book business, which he carried on under the firm name of Moffatt & Bushnell to the fall of 1872, when he came to Council Bluffs; here he bought an interest in L. Brackett's Post Office Book Store, and carried on business in company with Mr. Brackett until 1876, when he sold out to W. C. Erb. Aftei two years, he again bought an interest in the business. On first coming to Council Bluffs, Bushnell & Brackett started a store on upper Broadway, and they have operated that and the post office book store ever since. In the spring of 1882, the post office store was removed five doors above the post office. The Pearl street store is 100 feet long and twenty feet wide, and occupies one floor, where they carry on both wholesale and retail business, keeping a full stock of goods in their line; this store is conducted by Mr. Bushnell. The store on Upper Broadway is conducted by Mr. Brackett, and a full stock of toys are kept in addition to the books and news business; this store is seventy feet long and fifty feet wide. Mr. Bnshnell's ancestors came to this country many generations back.


CARSON, George

Attorney, Council Bluffs, is a native of Illinois. He read law under Col. Scoby, of Greenville, Ill., and graduated from the Law Department of the State University of Michigan, in the class of 1868. In 1869, he began practice in Council Bluffs. In 1870, he formed a partnership with Mr. S. Smith, under the firm name of Smith & Carson. In 1879, the firm again changed and became Smith, Carson & Carl. In 1877, Mr. Carson was elected by the Republican party, a member of the Seventeenth General Assembly of Iowa, for the session of 1878, and in 1879 he was re-elected by the same party, and served during the Eighteenth General Assembly, in the session of 1880. His time at present is wholly devoted to his law practice in Council Bluffs.


CHAFFIN, J. W.

Council Bluffs, editor of the Council Bluffs Advance, part proprietor of that paper and of the steam job printing and book-binding establishment of S. T. Walker & Co. Born in Chillicothe, Ohio, July 17, 1824. Received his early education at Germantown and Bellbrook, Ohio. The honorary degree of Master of Arts was conferred by the Adrian College, Michigan, 1868, receiving an invitation to deliver the annual lecture before the Star Literary Society of Adrian, which is considered quite an honor. Taught school for awhile after leaving school. In 1848, entered the ministry of the Wesleyan Church. During years 1861-62 -63, held position of President of the Miami Conference; during time in the ministry, he was associated either as editor or correspondent of several religious weeklies. In 1850, he launched forth the Herald of Freedom, an anti-slavery paper devoted to reform and temperance. Was nominated, in 1853, by the Free Soilers, for Treasurer of State. In 1858, engaged in the pork-packing business in Cincinnati, in which business he was unsuccessful. In 1863, was Chaplain of the Fifty-ninth Ohio Volunteers; at end of same year, was mustered out on account of ill health. Then accepted position in Secretary's office of United States Treasury. Returned to Ohio in 1865; from there to Richmond, Ind., in a short time; same year entered the ministry of the M. E. Church at West Liberty, Iowa, in which he remained until 1877, at which time he resigned his charge and went to Clarinda, and engaged in printing the Herald. He is the author of two volumes (one poetical), The Golden Urn, and the second a Theological work, The Battle of Calvary. Came to Council Bluffs, January 1882, and during the summer of this year, organized and set on foot the Council Bluffs Advance, an Independent Republican weekly newspaper, which bids fair to be a success in every sense of the word. Mr. Chaffin was married to Miss Lizzie Grant, of Burlington, Ohio, in 1850; after her decease in 1860, he married Miss Bell Shriver, in 1862.



CLARK, F. C.

Dentist, Council Bluffs, was born in Maine, in 1829, and in 1850 went to California by way of Cape Horn. He was married, in Boise City, Idaho, in 1863, and, his wife's relations residing in Iowa, he resolved to settle there, and accordingly came overland to this State. He came to Council Bluffs in September, 1864, and engaged in business there in 1865. He has four children. He is a member of Excelsior Lodge.


CLARK, J. H.

Reporter for Circuit Court of Thirteenth Judicial District, Council Bluffs, was born August 6, 1840, in Brown County, Ill.; he was raised aud educated there, and in 1856, came with his parents to Jefferson, Greene Co., Iowa. He entered the army at Jefferson, Iowa, August 10, 1861, as a private, in the Tenth Iowa Volunteer Infantry; was promoted to First Sergeant in 1862, and to Captain of Company H - same company - in which he had enlisted - August 11, 1863. He held that position until discharged, January 15, 1865, at Savannah, Ga. He was wounded four times, one, a severe wound in the shoulder. He returned to Jefferson, Iowa, and engaged in merchandising, and during the years 1869-70-71 and 72, was mail agent on Des Moines Valley Railroad during 1873; meanwhile he had been studying shorthand writing, and still continued that study, and in 1875, was appointed to the position of Reporter for Circuit Court of Thirteenth Judicial District of Iowa, and still holds that position. In August, 1880, he came to Council Bluffs to reside. He is of English descent.



CLARK, J. T.

General Agent of Chicago & North-western Railroad, Council Bluffs, has been in his present position since April, 1880. Previous to coming to Cbuncil Bluffs, he was in the office of the General Manager of the Chicago & North-Western Railroad, at Chicago. In 1870, he left school and went into the office of the General Manager of the Illinois Central Railroad, at St. Louis, Mo. In 1873, he went to Chicago and entered the General Passenger Department of the Chicago & North-Western Railroad there. In 1875, went into the General Superintendent's office of that road at Chicago, and afterward held a position in the General Manager's office, which he held until he came to Council Bluffs in 1880. Mr. Clark was born in Auburn, N. Y., in November, 1852. Moved to Springfield, Ill., in 1858, and remained there till 1870. He was married, in Chicago, in 1880, to Miss Arnold.


CLAUSEN, John

Grocer, Council Bluffs, was born in Germany December 25, 1832. He landed in New York City in 1853, without a single cent in his pocket. He came to Council Bluffs in 1856 and in 1860 opened a grocery store in a small log house on what is now the site of the Ogden House. This primitive food dispensary was called the "One-Horse Grocery," and it will be remembered by the older citizens of Council Bluffs. He now carries on a large grocery, beside keeping a full line of hardware and agricultural implements. He was married in Council Bluffs in 1856. He has seven children - two sons and five daughters, all of whom are living in Council Bluffs. The oldest daughter is the wife of Mr. Allen of this city. Our subject was Treasurer of the city of Council Bluffs in 1876, aud has held the same office for the past two years. He has also been a member of School Board for three years.



COHOUN, J. L.

Cashier for Christian Straub, Council Bluffs, was born in Elizabeth City, N. C, January 13, 1861. Resided with his parents there for eleven years. Then came to Council Bluffs. He was educated in Council Bluffs, and in September, 1880, left that city to join the American Contingent of the Peruvian Navy, at Halifax, N. S. He first went to Baltimore, Md., where he passed a thorough and rigid examination. He was accepted and presented with a commission of Fourth Lieutenant, and took 160 American seamen from Baltimore to Halifax to man the new Peruvian iron-clad, Guadaloupe, which was laden with arms and ammunition. The expedition was for the relief of Callao, Peru. Mr. Cohoun continued in the Peruvian service seven months. The Guadaloupe encountered a severe storm while on her voyage, making her almost a wreck, and injuring many of the officers and crew. Among the unfortunate was Mr Cohoun, who was accordingly left at the Marine Hospital, at Norfolk, Va., with the First Lieutenant. Upon his recovery, he was assigned to the dangerous duty of recruiting seamen for the Peruvian service, which was a violation of our international law. He was engaged in the recruiting service for four months, and upon the fall of Callao, he severed his connection with Peru. He returned to Council Bluffs May 1, 1881, and engaged with W. W. Wallace, coal merchant, as book-keeper and acted in that capacity till June 1, 1882, when he accepted the position of cashier with Christian Straub, the well-kuown contractor and builder of Council Bluffs. Mr. Cohoun is a young man of fine business ability, and success in life is sure to crown his efforts.



CONNELL, D. M.

Undertaker, Council Bluffs, was born in Canada in 1853, and came with his parents to the United States in 1857, and settled in New York. His father, who is seventy years of age, resides in Plymouth, N. H., where subject's mother died at the advanced age of seventj'-seven years. Mr. Connell engaged in the undertaking business in 1874, and carried it on in Plymouth, N. H., till 1881. He came to Council Bluffs September 7, 1882, and engaged in his present business, carrying $2,000 worth of stock. He was married, at Plymouth, N. H., in 1877.



CONNOR, B. T.

Marble, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1878, from Burlington. He was born in Galena, Ill., in 1853. He learned his trade in Galena, Ill., and thence moved to Burlington. He employs six men and does a yearly business of $15,000. He built his present building in 1879. His parents are still living at Galena, Ill.; they had a family of nine children.


COOK, A. J.

Physician, Secretary and Medical Director of the Mutual Benefit Association, came to Council Bluffs in April, 1881; located here and began the practice of medicine, making chronic diseases a specialty. He is a physician of the old school. Dr. Cook is the originator of the Council Bluffs Mutual Benefit Association, which was incorporated, March 14, 1882, with W. F. Sapp, President; F. M. Gault, Vice President; A. J. Cook, Secretary and Medical Director; and Joseph Lyman, Counselor. This company now has in the field about one hundred regular agents working in Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Kansas, Colorado, Dakota, Missouri and Wisconsin, and has at this time 513 policies. The main office is located at 103 Pearl street, Council Bluffs. Dr. Cook was born in Decatur County, Ind., August 24, 1841, and remained there until the breaking out of the rebellion, when he enlisted in the army at the age of nineteen, as a private, in Company E, Thirty-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was mustered into service September 18, 1861. He was taken prisoner May 9, 1862, at the battle of Limestone Creek, Ala., and was kept in prison thirteen months. After getting out of prison, he was appointed independent scout, in the Army of the Cumberland, and served in that capacity during the the rest of the war. He shot and killed the rebel General W. C. Walker, in Cherokee County, N. C, on the night of January 3, 1864. Ten men were with the Doctor; undertook to capture the General; he resisted and was killed to prevent him from killing the chief of scouts. After leaving the army, he began reading medicine in 1866, and read and practiced under his preceptor until 1869. He took first course of lectures at Bennett Medical College, Chicago, in the winter of 1869-70; commenced practicing in Kosciusko County, Ind.; took second course of lectures in the winter of 1871-72, at same college, and then graduated at Louisville College of Medicine in the winter of 1873-74. After graduating, he did not engage in active practice until the fall of 1875, when he began at Rose Hill, Mahaska Co., Iowa, and remained there until the spring of 1879. He then moved to Bedford, Taylor Co., Iowa, and practiced there until coming to Council Bluffs. The Doctor was married in Mahaska County, Iowa, June 29, 1876, to Rosamond B. Clayworth, of that county. Is of English descent.


COOPER & McGEE

Hardware and stoves, Council Bluffs. H. G. McGee was born in Grafton, W. Va., April 26, 1858; he removed to Pittsburgh, Penn., with his parents when eight years of age, and was educated at Western University of Pittsburgh, Penn. He came to Council Bluffs in the spring of 1874, and engaged with Miller & Company in hardware store as salesman, aud remained with that firm until forming his present partnership. He is of Irish descent. W. S. Cooper was born and raised in Council Bluffs, and educated in the public schools of that city. After leaving school he worked for Empkie & McDoel, hardware dealers, as salesman, for two years. He then became bookkeeper for P. C. Devol, hardware merchant, and held that position until entering the present firm. His ancestors came to America many generations back. The firm of Cooper & McGee commenced business in Council Bluffs in March, 1882, at No. 41 Main street, their store occupying two stories seventy feet long by twenty-two feet in width. The lower story is occupied by the hardware aud stove department; part of the upper story is used as a tin shop, while the other part is used for storing goods. They carry from $10,000 to $15,000 in stock, and expect to increase that amount. Their annual sales, from present indications, will run as high as $30,000. They employ two practical tinners the year round.



COUNCIL BLUFFS SAVINGS BANK

General banking, Council Bluffs, was organized November 1, 1870, N. P. Dodge being elected President and A. W. Street Cashier. At a meeting of the stockholders, held in June, 1882, N. P. Dodge was elected President; J. Bereshen Vice President, and Charles E. Dix Cashier. Capital, $50,000. Surplus, $20,000. C. E. Dix was connected with bank as Assistant Cashier from May 1, 1875, till June, 1882, when he was elected Cashier. The bank does a general banking business. All the railroads running into Council Bluffs transact their business with this bank.


DAVIS, Fred

Livery, Council Bluffs, was born in Peoria in 1852. His parents removed to St. Joseph, Mo., in 1859; thence to Oskaloosa in 1862, and, in 1863, came to Council Bluffs. His father died in Council Bluffs in 1864; his mother is still living; they had two children - Fred and Mrs. J. W. Bell, of Chicago. The firm of Wheeler & Davis began the livery business in Council Bluffs in May, 1882. Their barn was built by Stambach, and is known as the Ogden Livery. They keep ten horses in their livery, and board about twenty more.


DICKEY, J.

Grocer, Council Bluffs, was bom in Lawrence, Ohio, in 1827, and, in 1839, came to Van Buren County, Iowa. He was a member of the State Militia. In 1860, Mr. Dickey came to Council Bluffs and opened a grocery store in his present building, which was erected that year. He was married in 1849. Mr. Dickey is in partnership with his son, A. D. Dickey, who was born in Van Buren County, Iowa, in 1855. They have met with good success in business, their annual sales amounting to $30,000. Mr. Dickey has a dwelling house on Fourth avenue, a house and lot on Main street, and four lots in Casady's Addition.


DONNELLY, D. K.

Engineer, Union Pacific Water Works, Council Bluffs, is a native of Detroit, Mich.; born in 1845. He enlisted in Ann Arbor, Mich., in the Second Michigan Cavalry, and, during the late war, served three years and nine months. After the war, he went to California, where he remained a number of years, engaged as engineer in crushing and smelting works. In 1871, he came to Council Bluffs, and engaged as engineer of the Union Pacific Waterworks till 1872, when he went to St. .Joseph, but in 1875, returned to Council Bluffs, and has since held his present position there. His duty consists in running the engine four hours in the twenty-four. .June 26, 1872, he married Miss Anna Butler, of Nodaway, Mo., and by this union they have been blessed with two children - Cora, aged nine, and Ethel, aged three years.


DOUGHTY, George

Retired, Council Bluffs, has been a resident of Council Bluffs since the fall of 1853, except a short time spent in the mountains of Colorado, during the summers of 1860-61. He was born March 4, 1817, in Dutchess County, N. Y. His people were among the early settlers of the New England States. The name of Doughty, so far as can be traced, is of Scotch origin. When ten years of age, Mr. Doughty's parents moved from Dutchess County to Cayuga County, N. Y., where the early part of his life was spent, and his education received. In 1839, he left home, and, for several years, was traveling over the West; his last place of residence before coming to Council Bluffs was Atchison, Mo. In 1853, he engaged in the mercantile business in Council Bluffs, and continued the same until June, 1858. In the spring of 1859, he was elected Mayor of the city for one year. In 1860 and 1861, he spent a part of the time in Colorado, mining and prospecting; he was out of active business until 1866, when he opened a furniture house, which he conducted until 1870, since which time he has not been engaged in the mercantile business. In 1871, he was elected by the Democratic party to the office of Sheriff of Pottawattamie County by a majority of eighty votes, though the votes of the county were 300 Republican. In 1873, he was re-elected, this time by a majority of 380. At the expiration of his second term of office, he withdrew from public life, and has since been leading the quiet life of a retired citizen. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., and has filled the chair of Noble Grand of his lodge for three terms. He is also a member of the A. F. & A. M., and has acted as W. M. in his lodge during the absence of that officer. He was one of the builders of the first three-story brick building ever erected in the city; this was the corner now occupied by the savings bank, and was known as the Empire Block.



EATON, Joel

Secretary and part proprietor of Council Bluffs Gas Company, Council Bluffs, was born near Boston, Mass., and received his education there. He is of English descent, his ancestors coming to America in 1630. In the spring of 1870, franchise was granted, and the construction of gas works for the city of Council Bluffs was immediately begun. Soon after this, however, articles of incorporation were filed with the Secretary of State organizing a stock company with a capital of .$150,000. The company has at present one main building 112 feet in length, where the gas is manufactured from best Pennsylvania coal, and one gasometer with a capacity of 60,000 cubic feet. Five men are employed in the manufacture of the gas. The company's office is located at 28 Pearl street, where they have a plumbing and gas-fitting establishment. In this latter department four men are employed, including the book-keeper and plumbers. The company has a contract with the city for furnishing the gas and lighting the street lamps of the city. Two lamp-lighters are employed by the company, and sometimes as high as twenty-five men are employed in laying mains, etc. Mr. Eaton is at present secretary of this company, and part proprietor of the same.


EDMUNDSON, James D.

Council Bluffs. One of the busiest citizens of Council Bluffs. Arrived here in 1856, and formed a partnership with D. C. Bloomer in the real estate and insurance business. The office of the firm, until the beginning of 1869, was in the frame building one door west of the block occupied by Metcalf Brothers, on Broadway. At that date. Mr. Edmundson and Mr. Bloomer dissolved partnership, Mr. Edmundson going into business on his own account, in real estate, having his office to the present time on the west side of Main street, between First avenue, and Willow avenue. The large amount of lands owned by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad Company passed through his hands as the agent for their sale, in Pottawattamie County, and in addition to that he had a long list of prairie lands, owned and for sale by private parties. Seeing the absolute necessity for an organization in the nature of a loan and building association, at his instance and through his powerful efforts, such an institution was incorporated in 1877, and put in operation. He was made a director of the new corporation, and has acted as Secretary ever since. No movement of any kind inaugurated in the city has ever had more beneficial results in aiding persons of moderate and limited means to acquire homes for themselves; and the success of the enterprise is in great part due to the energy instilled into it, and the care exercised over its operations, by Mr. Edmundson. When the Citizens' Bank of Council Bluffs was organized and put into operation, on July 1, 1882, the directory unanimously chose Mr. Edmundson as its President, and he holds that position now. He was married to Miss Hart, the only daughter of Dr. H. W. Hart, of Council Bluffs. Mr. Edmuudson, in addition to having an aptitude for business, is a gentleman of general culture, and has a passion for general literature and science, and is one of the most liberal patrons either has in the city. No man is more highly regarded for his integrity and urbanity than he, and the esteem held for him is universal.


EISEMAN, Henry & Co.

Clothing, Council Bluffs. Simon and Henry Eiseman, the members of this firm, are natives of Germany. They emigrated to the United States and came direct to Council Bluffs in 1861, where they opened a wholesale and retail clothing establishment. They made but a small beginning, but their push, energy and close attention to business soon increased their trade, and to-day they can show larger sales than any other house in Iowa. They carry an average stock of $100,000, and their annual sales are nearly a quarter of a million; they employ from twelve to fifteen men in their establishment. Mr. Simon Eiseman was married in Council Bluffs in 1872.


EMONDS, William G.

Physician, Council Bluffs, was born in Cologne, Westphalia, Germany, and remained there until seven years of age; then came to this country with his sister, and located in Iowa City. He has remained there all the time since, with the exception of what time he spent in going to school and traveling abroad. He attended Salesianum College, Milwaukee, Wis., one year, in 1867, after which, on account of ill health, he went to Cape Girardeau, Mo., and remained there one year. He then went to Fond du Lac, Wis.; attended college there some time, after which he went to Notre Dame University, near South Bend, Ind.; remained there one year, and then returned to Iowa City, and attended the Iowa State University there two years. He then went again to Notre Dame, Ind.; remained there eight months, when sickness brought him back to Iowa City again. During his convalescence in Iowa, he attended St. Joseph Institute at Iowa City remaining there two years; after that he went into the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad office, as telegraph operator and assistant United States Express agent one year. He then took the office at Mitchellville, Iowa, and remained there seven months, after which he was promoted to clerkship in W. H. Quick's Superintendent's office, Des Moines; remained there more than one year, then returned to Iowa City again, and took up the higher branches at St. Joseph's Institute, and prepared himself for the Homoeopathic Department of the Medical Department of Iowa State University, Prof. Cowperthwaite being his preceptor; he remained in this office as clinical clerk for three years, graduating at the end of that time. He commenced practicing at Bellevue, Iowa, and Dubuque, and remained there two years, after which he went direct to the place of his birth, and from there to Vienna, Austria, attending and practicing in the General World's Hospital, or Alleg. Krankenhaus, where he remained with the king of all surgeons, Prof. Billroth assisting him in the hospital one and a half years. He then went to Prague, Bohemia, and assisted in the obstetrical ward of Prof Brisky, after which he went to Berlin, attending the Prof. Laugendeck Hospital one year, after which he went to Paris, where he remained a short time, visiting different hospitals; thence he went to London, England, practicing at Guy's street, Bartholomew's and St. Thomas' one year. Leaving London, he traveled through England and Scotland; remained at Edinburgh a short time, thence went to Ireland, and from there to America, on June 27, 1882. He is now permanently located in Council Bluffs, with the intention of going to Omaha in course of one year to make that his headquarters.


EMPKIE, L. C.

Hardware, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in the spring of 1867, and engaged as book-keeper for T. J. Harford & Bro., with whom he remained till 1871, when he started in the hardware business for himself, and shortly afterward the firm of L. C. Empkie & Co., under which name he carried on business until 1874, when W. H. McDoel was admitted as a partner, and, under the firm name of Empkie & McDoel, the business was continued until January, 1882. At that time, a company was formed, called the Empkie Hardware Company, of which Mr. Empkie wasthe head, his associates in the business being George F. Wright and J. T. Hart. Since 1872, he has been doing both retail and wholesale business, having ou the road three traveling men, and seven men besides himself in the house. When he began business in 1872, he had a stock of $16,000, his annual sales being then about $50,000. The business has steadily increased, until now they have about $100,000 stock, and their annual sales amount to about $375,000. Mr. Empkie was born near Berlin, Prussia, in 1845; was educated in the public schools there, and in 1856, came to America with his parents, locating in Huron County, Mich. He engaged as salesman in a general store for a lumber company, having charge also of the shipping for the company for two or three years. He served during the year 1864 in the Twentv-uinth Michigan Volunteer Infantry, and, on leaving the army, again engaged with his former employers - the lumber firm of Ayres, Leonard & Wiswall - and continued with that firm until 1866. During the last two years he was with that firm he had charge of all shipping of the company. In 1866, he went to the Poughkeepsie (N. Y.) Commercial College, from which he graduated in the spring of 1867, then came directly to Council Bluffs, where he has remained ever since. He was married, in 1870, to Miss Van Pelt, of Council Bluffs. During the summer of 1882. the Empkie Hardware Company erected the first four-story business house built in Council Bluffs, the building which is 100 feet deep by 50 feet in width, cost about $25,000.



EPENETER, John

Council Bluffs, was boru in Germany in 1836, and learned his trade in his native county. In 1852, he came to America, and, in 1859, to Council Bluffs. At Omaha, Neb., in 1861, he married Henrietta Rudovsky, and by this union they have been blessed with nine children, all of whom, save one, were born in Council Bluffs. Mr. Epeneter began business in Council Bluffs in 1863, and was burned out in 1866, losing all he had. He rebuilt, however, and is now doing a flourishing business in stoves, tinware, and the manufacture of galvanized iron cornices. He employs fourteen men, his business having assumed large proportions and extended far into Iowa and Nebraska. He was the founder of the first Turner's Association organized in Council Bluffs in 1864, and is also one of the charter members of the German Odd Fellows Lodge of Council Bluffs. He was a member of the City Council in 1878, and held the otflces of Assessor and Gauger in Council Bluffs for six years.


EVERETT, Leonard

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born in Gainesville, Ala., in 1853; removed to Council Bluffs with his parents in 1855, where he has lived ever since. He was educated at and graduated from Cornell University, N. Y., in 1873; commenced studying law, soon after graduating, with Col. D. B. Dailey, and was admitted to practice in 1876. He is now practicing law at Nos. 17 and 18 Pearl street. He is of English descent.


FERGUSON, G. H.

Hotel, Council Bluffs, is a native of Vermont, born in 1853, and is a son of G. W. Ferguson. In 1864, he came to Dubuque, Iowa, where he lived until 1870, when he moved to Floyd County, Iowa. He remained there one year, then moved to Osage, Iowa, where he stayed four years, running the Dunton House; then removed to Waterloo, Iowa, where he ran an omnibus and transfer line for two years. He began hotel business in 1876, at the Pacific House, under the firm name of Ferguson & Son. It is the leading hotel of Council Bluffs, and was built thirty years ago. The hotel contains about seventy fine rooms, and about thirty servants are employed in the house. The arrivals average seventy per day, and there are, besides, many regular boarders at the hotel. A fine bar and billiard hall in connection with the house is conducted by N. L. Hall, while the barber shop is run by Fritz Bernhardie, who employs two assistants. September 10, 1878, Mr. Ferguson married Miss Anna B. Peregoy, of Baltimore, sister of J. W. Peregoy, of the well-known firm of Peregoy & Moore.


FONDA, E. R.

Locomotive engineer, Council Bluffs, was born in Utica, N. Y., in 1844. In 1866, he went to Quincy, Ill., and in 1875 came to Council Bluffs and engaged as a locomotive engineer at the Union Pacific Transfer Yards. He runs transfer switch engine No. 217, one of the most powerful engines that runs into Council Blufis. In Oberlin, Ohio, in 1873 he married Marian B. Berry, of that place, and they have one child - Lena, aged eight years. Mrs. Fonda was educated in New York. Mr. Fonda was an Alderman of the Fourth Ward in 1881; was a member of the Council when the charter was changed, and when Union avenue work was commenced. He is a Knight Templar, an Odd Fellow, a member of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, and President of Garfield Lodge, No. 126, Iowa Legion of Honor. His parents are residing at Mendota, Ill.



FOSTER, A. D.

Druggist, Council Bluffs, was born in Jefierson County, N. Y., in September, 1840, and after living there five years removed witli his parents to Waukesha, Wis., where he lived about fifteen years. At the breaking out of the late war, Mr. Foster joined Company G, Twenty-eighth Wisconsin, as private, and after serving over three years, left the service as First Lieutenant. After the war, he spent about two years in the mountains, then moved to Milwaukee, Wis., where he engaged in the drug business for three years. In 1870, he came to Council Bluffs, and immediately engaged in the drug business, in company with Alfred Hammer. They carried on business together for two years, when Mr. Foster bought out Mr. Hammer's interest in the business, and continued for three years, when the present firm of A. D. Foster & Bro. was formed, and business has since been carried on under that name. When they first began business, they did a wholesale trade, but since 1878 have carried on a jobbing business, which has steadily increased as has also their retail trade. They are one of the most substantial drug firms in the city.


FOSTER, W. H.

Gardener and florist, Council Bluffs, was born and raised in Carter County, Tenn. His father is still living in Indiana, at the age of seventy-five. Our subject is a brick-layer by trade. He left Tennessee in 1857, and worked at his trade in different cities until 1867, when he came to Council Bluffs and started a green-house. He has now the most extensive grounds and appointments west of Chicago, having twenty acres in garden and flowers, and 20,000 square feet of glass roof. He employs from six to twenty men, and is this year making extensive improvements. He was married in Indiana in 1854, and has one child - a boy of fifteen vears.


FRAINEY, James

Merchant tailor. Council Bluffs, was born in Connaught, Ireland, in 1837, where he remained until he was seven years of age, when he removed with his parents to Lancashire, England. He served his apprenticeship to the tailor's trade in England, and in 1852 came to this country and located in New York City. He worked at his trade in that city for two years, then moved to Chicago; after working there two years, moved to St. Louis, Mo.; and, after working there a year, returned to New York City. He pursued his trade in that city for a year, then in Charleston, S. C., for a year, then went to Nashville, Tenn., where he began as a cutter and remained there four years. From Nashville he went to St. Louis, Mo., remained there four or five years then came to Omaha, openetl up a shop there for himself, and in 1870 came to Council Bluffs. Here he ran a shop a short time then engaged as a cutter with Oberfelder & Newman, with whom he remained till the summer of 1882, when he opened up his fine merchant tailoring establishment at 332 Broadway. He carries one of the finest and newest stocks in his line in the city, and is meeting with an extensive patronage. He employs eighteen men constantly and pays the highest price for skilled labor. In 1872, he married Miss Mary J. Buckley, of Beloit, Wis., and by this union they have had six children.



FRAINEY, John Jay

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born in Harrison County, Ky., January 13, 1856, and lived there until 1862, when he went to New York City, where he was educated, also attending the Brooklyn common schools. In 1870, he commenced clerking for Messrs. Ottinger & Bro., wholesale cotton and tobacco brokers, New York. He came West in 1872, to Washington, Ind., and commenced reading law with Judge James W. Ogden, of that place, and in the fall of 1877 entered the law class of Bloomington, Ind,, University, from which he graduated in the spring of 1878, having conferred on him the degree of LL. B. He then began the practice of law at Washington, Ind., where he remained one year, then went to St. Louis, where he remained three months. From St. Louis he went to Chicago; staid there three months, and in the spring of 1880, came to Council Bluffs, where he began practice, and in the fall of 1880 was elected Justice of the Peace on the Democratic ticket, the Republican majority of the city being 160; he received a majority of eighteen, and still holds that office. He is of Irish descent.


GAULT, F. M.

Railroad agent, Council Bluffs, was born in Bow, Merrimack Co., N. H., July 14, 1848. He lived at home until he reached the age of twenty, at which time he went to Rockford, Ill, as baggage man, in the employ of the Chicago & North-Western Railroad. He remained in that capacity a short time, and was promoted to a clerkship in the freight office at the same point; shortly afterward, he rose to be cashier of the same office, which he held till the spring of 1874, when he engaged in otlier business. In 1876, he went to Chicago, and engaged as a book-keeper in a commission house, remaining at this occupation until he came to Council Bluffs. He is a member of the Masonic Fraternity. Is a stock-holder in the Council Bluffs Insurance Company, and is Vice President of the Mutual Benefit Association of Council Bluffs. He received his education at Blanchard Academy, Pembroke, N. H.; he is of Scotch-Irish descent; he came to Council Bluffs in August, 1880, as the local freight agent at this point of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad; he remained in this capacity till April 1, 1882, when he received his promotion to the general agency of the same road.


GEISE, Conrad

Brewery, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1858; began building a malt house in 1867, and, in 1868, built a large brewery. He erected a new malt house in 1877, and uses the old one for an ice house. He employs from twenty to twenty-five men, and has from eight to ten work horses. His yearly sales amount to about 15,000 barrels. He was born in Germany in 1842, and came direct to this city in 1858. Mr. Geise was married, in Council Bluffs, in 1864, and has a fiimily of four boys and one girl. His mother, who is now sixty-four years of age, resides with him. In 1882, he added another story to his brewery, in which he malts from 50,000 to 60,000 bushels of barley annually. He gets his hops from New York. He owns thirty acres of land adjacent to his buildings.


GILMORE, C. H.

News and notions, Council Bluffs, started in Council Bluffs only a short time ago in his present news and notion business. He was born in New Hampshire in 1849, son of W. H. Gilmore, who is still living in New Hampshire, on a farm, part of which is a part of the old Franklin Pierce place. Until 1866, Mr. Gilmore lived on the farm and attended school, going to Philip's Academy at Francestown, N. H., but in 1866, he ran away from home and enlisted in the regular army, in the Second United States Infantry, most of the three years which he served being spent at Louisville, Ky., Gen. Thomas' headquarters. In 1869, the army consolidated, and the regiment was sent into Alabama, Mr. Gilmore's company being sent to Guntersville, Ala., where they were discharged. S. W. Crawford was their regimental commander. After being discharged, Mr. Gilmore re-enlisted at Louisville, Ky., and was sent to Omaha, but on account of ill health, was discharged after serving one year of the second enlistment. Since that time, he has made Pottawattamie County his home, teaching school for the first two years in the eastern part of the county. He then came to Council Bluffs, and has since remained here. In the spring of 1877, he went into the Sheriff's office, and has been in the court house ever since, with the exception of two years, when he was City Constable. He is at present Assistant Recorder. Although Mr. Gilmore has just started in business, he is doing well, and his location, 512 Main street, gives him one of the best situations in the city, and, as he continues in business, he will gain the patronage he so well deserves, being so well and favorably known in the city.



GORHAM, L. B.

Union Pacific Stock Agent, Union Pacific Transfer Stock Yards, Council Bluffs, was born in New York City, and when ten yeas old went to Illinois, and, at the age of fifteen years, became engaged in stock business. In 1870, he went to California on a government survey; in 1876, passed his examination for United States Deputy Surveyor in San Francisco, and, in 1878, passed the examination for United States Deputy Mineral Surveyor, which appointments he holds at present. He surveyed through Colorado and Wyoming in 1879 and 1880, and, in the latter year, came to Council Bluffs, where he entered the employ of the Union Pacific Railroad County as stock agent, and also officiated as bill clerk. He was married in October, 1882, and resides on Ninth street, Council Bluffs.


GRAEBER, A. H.

Receiving Clerk in Local Department of the Union Pacific Transfer Freight Offices, Council Bluffs, is a native of Maryland; born in 1822. His parents, in 1826, moved to Salisbury, N. C, where they died; his father in 1842, and his mother a short time after. In 1854, Mr. Graebcr came to Council Bluffs, which was then a town of only 500 inhabitants, and without any railway communication whatever; he engaged with the Western Stage Company here, in whose employ he remained for fifteen years; he now holds the position of Receiving Clerk in the local department of the Union Pacific Railroad Transfer Freight Offices. At Pella, Iowa, in 1870, he married Miss E. M. Post, of that place, and by this union they have had four children - Mary E. V., Ella L., Clara L. and William H. P. Mr. Graeber is a member of the Episcopal Church, and is Past Chancellor of the Knights of Pythias.


GRIFFIN, M. G.

Manager of the Daily Bee, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in the spring of 1877, being at that time traveling salesman for Greensfelder Bros., wholesale druggists in St. Louis, Mo., and, in 1878, opened up a grocery and wholesale butter and flour store on South Maine street, having severed his connection with Greensfelder Bros.; he continued in the grocery business until the fall of 1881, when he sold out to Strauvien & Schurtz, and July 1, 1882, assumed the management of the Daily Bee, which position he holds at present. He was born November 8, 1845, in County Clare, Ireland, where he remained until 1863, when he came to America, landing in New York in August of that year; he went direct to Washington, D. C., where he entered the music  store of John F. Ellis, and remained there until December, 1865, when he went to St. Louis, where he held the position of book-keeper and cashier for Charleston, McKenna & Co., wholesale notions and dry goods, until 1867; he then took charge as manager of the "Broadway Dry Goods Store," or "Red Store," a branch house of A. M. Haggarty & Co., of St. Louis, until 1868; he then went to Omaha, Neb., and engaged in the general insurance business, and remained there until the great Chicago fire, when he accepted the position of cashier in the Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad Coinpany's freight office, holding that position until the completion of the bridge across the Missouri Eiver at this point, at which time the different roads consolidated their offices, and Mr. Griffin was appointed cashier of all. In May, 1872, he married Ada Dohaney, daughter of John Dohaney, of Council Bluffs, and in June, 1873, went to San Francisco with his family, and remained there until 1877, when he came to Council Bluffs. He is general agent for Madame Demorest's patterns for the Coast Pacific.


GRONEWEG & SCHOENTGEN

Wholesale grocers, Council Bluffs, have been engaged in the wholesale grocery trade in Council Bluffs since July 1, 1878. In the building-up of this branch of the business industries of Council Bluffs, the above gentlemen have displayed as much energy, enterprise and good financiering ability as any firm in the city. They were both engaged in the retail grocery trade in the city for a number of years prior to establishing their present house. Mr. Schoentgen became a resident of the city in 1866, and began the retail grocery business in 1869, while Mr. Groneweg began in the retail trade in 1862, which was the first year of his residence in Council Bluffs. The building they now occupy is 34 feet frontage by 100 feet in length, three floors and basement. They began business with one man on the road and four in the house, and now have three traveling salesmen and nine men in the house. Their business has more than trebled since their first year. Hitherto, their trade has been mainly in Iowa, but they are now preparing to do a business in Nebraska. Their energy and push have placed them among the first business men of the city. To such men is Council Bluffs indebted for her prosperity.


GUANELLA, F. H.

Marble, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1860, and engaged in the ice business in 1862. He carried on that business till 1875, when he engaged in farming, which occupation he pursued till 1879, when he engaged in the marble business. He was born in Galena, Ill., in 1854, and, in 1859, went to St. Joseph, where he remained two years, after which he came to Council Bluffs. His father still lives in Council Bluffs, at the advanced age of seventy-six years; his mother died in Council Bluffs in 1868.



GUITTAR, Theodore

County Sheriff, was born in 1842, in St. Louis, Mo., and became a resident of Council Bluffs in 1855. He received his education in the public schools of Council Bluffs, and, in 1877, was elected to the office of Constable. To this office he was re-elected, serving four years during the two terms; he spent two years as Deputy Sheriff under George Doughty, in 1872-73, and also two years in the same capacity under A. L. Kahle. In 1881, he was elected by the Republican party to the office of Sheriff of the county; his majority was forty-one votes; he is now engaged in the discharge of the duties of that office. In 1862, he entered the army as a private in the Second Iowa Battery. During his service, he was in many hard-fought battles, among which were the following: siege of Vicksburg, battle of Nashville, Tenn., Jacksonville, Miss., second siege of Mobile, battle of Selma, Ala., Montgomery, Ala., and of Tupelo, Tenn. Mr. Guittar is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, and also of Bluff City Lodge, No. 49, I. O. O. F.; he was married, in 1869, to Miss Elizabeth Beecroft, a native of England, and who came to the United States in 1854. with her people, and to Council Bluffs in 1860. They have but one child, a daughter.



HAMMER, Lewis

Council Bluffs, was born in Lorain County, Ohio, in 1837. He came West to Harrison County, Iowa, in 1857, and, in 1864, moved to Council Bluffs, where he opened a lumber jard on the corner of Vine and Market streets, where he does an annual business of $60,000, and employs six assistants. In Council Bluffs, in 1870, he married RhodaWood, and from this union three children have been born. Mr. Hammer was a member of the City Council of Council Bluffs, in 1878 and 1879. He is a member of the I. O. O. F.


HARDIN, SKELTON & CO.

Merchant tailors and dealers in gents' furnishing goods, Council Bluffs, began business in Council Bluffs in March, 1881. William Hardin was born in Council Bluffs October 13, 1856, and was educated in the public schools of his native city. He is a son of Martin Hardin, one of the oldest residents of this county. His ancestors were of the first families in Kentucky. Mr. Hardin was messenger hoy at the Transfer for some time, and afterward entered the abstract office of J. P. & J. N. Casady, of Council Bluffs. During the years 1878-79-80, he was Deputy County Treasurer. Henry H. Skelton was born in England and came to this country in 1872. He is a professional cutter, and up to the time of entering the present firm was employed by Metcalf Brothers as cutter. The present firm of Hardin, Skelton & Co. began business with a stock valued at $7,000, their annual sales being $35,000. They now carry a stock worth $15,000, and the annual sales for 1882, from present indications, will reach $50,000.


HARDING, Mrs. E. J.

Physician, Council Bluffs, is a daughter of Dr. M. S. Barnwell,  of Cincinnati, Ohio, and graduated at the Electropathic Institute of Philadelphia, Penn., and her fame extends over the whole United States, she having practiced very successfully in St. Louis, San Francisco, Salt Lake and other large cities. She came to Council Blufls in 1878 and established the Thermo Electric bath rooms. These medical baths are very effective and are very popular. She has invented several appliances and supporters for invalid ladies. She has at present three patents from the United States Government. Her great study has been to invent appliances for the relief of her own sex. She was born in Cincinnati, Ohio; was married in St. Louis, Mo., in 1867. She is a medical Electrician and Gynechologist.


HARRIS, A. H.

Retired, Council Bluffs, was born in New York in 1820. He came to Indiana in 1842, and to this county in 1854. He mentions the circumstance that three towns with whose early interests he had at different times in his life been identified are now flourishing cities - Batavia, N. Y., Terre Haute, Ind., and Council Bluffs. Since coming to Council Bluffs, Mr. Harris has always dealt in real estate, and has erected no less than eight business buildings. He has been foremost in many leading enterprises; he gave $500 toward the Ogden House; $300 to the Chicago & North-Western Railway, and has financially aided many other public schemes. He was married, in Batavia, N. Y., in 1857; he has two children, both born in Council Bluffs - Ida M. and Harry. Mr. Harris has always held aloof from politics, and has never united with any secret society or church organization.


HARRIS, Montgomery P.

Council Bluffs, by profession a lawyer, and who has recently become identified with the legal profession of Pottawattamie County, was born November 20, 1857, in the village of Sandy Hill, Washington Co., N. Y.; his father, Horace Harris, was born in the town of Queensbury, Warren Co., N. Y., in 1818, and was the son of Moses Harris, one of Washington's most trusted spies during the Revolution; the mother of M. P., A. A. (Boone) Harris, was born in the village of Greenville, Washington Co., N. Y., in 1822, and is a great-niece of the historical Daniel Boone; there were eight children in the family, of whom the subject of this sketch is the sixth. When eight years of age, he was placed in the common schools of his native village, which he continued to attend until his fourteenth year, when he was sent to the academy of that place, where he graduated in 1876. In the winter of the same year, he entered the law office of the Hon. N. G. Paris as a law student and clerk. His career as a law student is best told in his own words: "On the 8th day of December, 1876, I called on Mr. Paris for the purpose of making arrangements to study law in his office. My clothes were far from being of the finest texture, nor were they in the best of repair, my mother's time being occupied in looking after so many. I learned at an early age to be satisfied with the best she could do for me, and found no fault. I stepped into the library and made known my business. Mr. Paris looked me over from head to foot, during which trying time I concluded that he thought I had better go to work instead of spending my time studying law. He consented, however, to allow me the use of his books upon condition that I would do the office work, to which I quickly and gladly consented, and on the 11th I commenced a regular clerkship in his office. The four years I spent in his office as a student I shall never forget. They were trying and eventful ones in my life, and many times I was sorely tried and very nearly discouraged. I had everything imaginable to contend with; circumstances which were very embarrassing, indeed, seemed to have been the rule instead of the exception." Through it all, however, the determination and will to succeed carried him through, and on the 10th of September, 1880, at the village of Saratoga Springs, he was admitted to the bar of New York. In May, 1882, Mr. Harris came to Council Bluffs, wherehis references gave him an entree to the best society. He was shortly admitted to the bar of Iowa, and has begun the struggle of establishing a practice in Council Bluffs, in which his natural ability as an orator gives him great advantage. He is an Episcopalian, a member of the society of I. O. O. F., and a stanch Republican.


HART, H. W.

Physician, Council Bluffs, is one of the pioneers of that class of physicians who stand at the head of the profession in the city. He is a native of Chenango County, N. Y.; received his literary education at Geneva, and graduated from the Geneva Medical College in 1846. He spent one year in practice in Bath, of his native State, and then went to Rock County, Wis., where he practiced three years. His next move was to West Union, Fayette Co., Iowa, where he remained until the breaking-out of the war of the rebellion, when he entered the army as a Surgeon. His service was with the Ninth and Thirty-eighth Regiments of Iowa Infantry, Thirteenth Army Corps. Returning from the war, he spent a short time in Dubuque, Iowa, from which place he came to Council Bluffs in May of 1868. He opened an office within a short time after his arrival, and has been steadily engaged in practice since. He is a member of the Council Bluffs Medical Society, State Medical Society and of the American Medical Association. For the past ten years, he has been Commissioner of Insanity of the Council Bluffs district, and he is at present filling the office of County and City Physician. The Doctor is a member of the Congregational Church, and is a member of the best society of the city, as well as maintaining his position among the first of his profession.



HASKINS, S. F.

Coffee, Council Bluffs, was born in Connecticut in 1844; his father was an old railroad man. In August, 1862, our subject enlisted in the Nineteenth Connecticut, and, after serving fifteen months in that regiment, was transferred to the Second Connecticut Heavy Artillery, in which he was Sergeant. He left Connecticut in the spring of 1867, and, April 19, 1880, engaged with Thurman & Co., on Pearl street, Council Bluffs. August 1, 1881, he bought out Mr. Thurman, and carried on the grocery business until he came to his present stand; he started in the coffee business January 1, 1882, keeping all kinds of the finest goods in that line, and giving employment to two assistants.



HAZARD, A. A.

Sewing machines, Council Bluffs, was born in Claiborne County, Miss.; he was the son of S. H. and Delia A. (Leach) Hazard; his father was a Presbyterian minister, born in Rhode Island in 1814, and died in 1853; his (subject's) mother was born in Rockaway, N. J., in 1807, and died in New York City in 1876; his parents had twelve children. Our subject came to Council Bluffs in June, 1871, and engaged in business in company with G. R. Thompson, selling the Singer Sewing Machine. They continued in business together until February, 1879, when our subject purchased his partner's interest and took control of the entire business. In June, 1880, he severed his connection with the Singer machine, and continued at his old place of business, 106 South Fifth street, carrying a stock of leading machines of different makes. He finally became partial to the Domestic Sewing Machine, regarding it superior in many respects to other makes, and therefore decided to handle only machines of the Domestic pattern. Since October 20, 1881, he has been in the employ of the Domestic Sewing Machine Company as their special traveling agent for Western Iowa. He still carries on his business in Council Bluffs at the same location. He has been one of the most successful sewing-machine men in Iowa, and the present flourishing condition of the business that he has established in this and adjoining counties has been brought about by his fair and straightforward dealing on all occasions. He has five children - William L., Mary L., Nellie, Laura Lilly and Emily Lucretia. In religion, Mr. Hazard is a Presbyterian, and in politics, a Republican.


HENRY, H. L.

Grain dealer, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1856, and built a saw-mill in Harrison County, making Council Bluffs his headquarters, and continued in that business some few years. When the war broke out, he entered the army as Acting Quartermaster for Battalion Fourth Iowa and Spoor's Battery. In 1863, he purchased a steamboat; followed steam boating between St. Louis and New Orleans, commanding the boat himself. From 1866 to 1870, he was interested in the oil business in Kentucky; he then went into the grain business, operating between Council Blufls and St. Louis, and has continued in that business ever since, with the exception of the years 1872 and 1873, when he went to Texas, where he acted in the capacity of Special Agent of the California & Texas Railway Construction Company, furnishing the money in currency for the construction of that road. Since 1873, he has been operating in grain more or less. Mr. Henry was born in New York City, and is of Scotch descent.



HIGHT, B. W.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born July 1, 1842, in Albany, Vt.; was educated at Morrisville Academy and the University of Vermont, graduating from the latter in the class of 1861. The same year, he entered the United States Army as a private, and, in a short time, was promoted to Fourth Corporal; then to Fourth Sergeant; then to Sergeant Major, and in winter of 1862 was promoted to Second Lieutenant; then, after the battle of the Wilderness, he was again promoted to Captain of Company C, of Second Vermont Volunteer Regiment. About the year 1867, he came to Council Bluffs; previous to this, however, he had studied law in Vermont, and in the spring of 1866, had graduated from Albany law school. He commenced practice with William A. Mynster, in Council Bluffs, in the spring of 1867; withdrew from partnership July 1, 1874, and practiced alone until 1878, when he formed partnership with C. R. Scott, and they are still practicing together. In 1871, he was appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of J. R. Reed, and the same fall was elected to fill the unexpired term, and was appointed by the board to the office of County Attorney, and held this position until 1880. At the spring term of the Supreme Court, he was appointed Supreme Court Reporter by that court, to fill the vacancy occasioned by resignation of J. S. Runnells, Reporter of that court. He was married, March 17, 1875, to Miss Lillie Snow. He is a charter member of the American Legion of Honor.



HILTON, Mrs. H. J.

Physician, Council Bluffs. Came to Council Bluffs in September, 1880. She was born in Cleveland, Ohio, and raised and educated thero. She graduated at Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1872. Her mother lives in Chicago, Ill., at the advanced age of eighty years, but looks not over sixty years, and is very fine looking. Mrs. Hilton has graduated both in medicine and surgery; she has three children - E. Harold, who is a graduate of the literary department at Ann Arbor, Mich., and is now in Washington, D. C., in the signal service department; and two daughters, who reside here with her. Mrs. Hilton belongs to a very old Eastern family, being descended from the Childs of New York, on her mother's side, and from the Tifts of New York on her father's side. Her father, Hezekiah Tift, was one of the very first settlers of Cleveland, Ohio, there being only a log hotel at that place when he first settled there. Her mother, who is still living at Chicago, spends considerable of her time among her children. One of her daughters is Mrs. F. J. Osborne, wife of the well-known merchant of this city.



HOLLAND, W. C.

Livery, Council Bluffs, was born in Ohio in 1837, and lived in that State till he was nineteen years of age. His parents raised a family of ten cliildren, every one of whom are living and married. His mother is also living in Conway, Taylor County, this State. His father died in the latter place, in May, 1882. Our subject came to Council Bluffs April 16, 1881. He keeps eight head of horses in his livery beside having fourteen boarders. He had formerly lived twenty-two years in Henry County, Iowa, and afterward a short time in Woodbine, Harrison County, this State. He was married in Henry County, this State, in 1858, to Miss Mary J. Conklin. They have two children - Alta, aged eighteen years, and Clarence, who is nine years old. On January 1, 1878, there was a grand re-union at the house of our subject's parents. The ten children were all there to take dinner with their father and mother, making it an occasion long to be remembered.


HOLMES, George A.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born in 1848 in Huntsville, Ala., and is of English descent. In 1862, his father and family went overland to California, and, returning overland in 1866, settled in Page County, Iowa. He commenced studying with Moore & Mclntyre, of Clarinda, Iowa, in 1869, remaining in the office four months. He was admitted to the bar in March, 1869, under a close and rigid examination. He then worked on a farm two years for the benefit of his health. He came to Council Bluffs in December, 1871, and opened a law office on Broadway, where he has ever since been located. After having been located here a year, he had gained a lucrative practice. In April, 1874, he was elected City Attorney by City Council; was re-elected in 1876-77-78-79, and again in 1881. He is a Democrat in politics, and ran on that ticket in 1876 as Representative of Pottawattamie County, receiving a large vote, though the Republican majority in the county at that time was 600. He received at that election 220 votes more than the State ticket. During his administration as City Attorney, a great many valuable improvements were projected and carried out, of which he had the management. Big Spring Lake and Car Lake were ceded to the city by the General Government through the assistance of Hon. W. F. Sapp, Member of Congress at that time; Union avenue, Pacific avenue, Vaughn avenue, which required a great deal of labor and time and ability during these years, were finished and opened by the city. Union avenue causing a great deal of litigation, which was finally decided by the Supreme Court of the State in favor of the city two years after this improvement was commenced. In 1876, while Col. J. H. Keatley was Mayor, he and the City Attorney devised and proposed a plan by which the whole of Williams' Addition might be secured as a public park for the city, the addition consisting of eighty acres cut up into town lots. This plan, however, was not accepted by the City Council at that time. In 1879, during Hon. Addison Coughran's administration, the question of securing the ground was again brought up by the Mayor and City Attorney. It was aided by the fact that preliminary surveys were made for the construction of water works, and it was decided that a portion of Snow & Green's Addition was the proper place for a reservoir. This addition adjoins on the north and east sides Williams' First Addition. This at once showed the expediency of having this ground secured for park purposes, and a resolution was then passed by the City Council for the procuring of the ground as had been advised by the City Attorney. The lots were all incumbered by delinquent taxes, and in but few instances were the lots condemned for more than taxes due upon them. The city paid the State tax and school tax and remitted its own tax, and the County Board of Supervisors, after the condemnation, released the county and assigned the county tax to the city. The assigned amount of money actually expended was between $1,800 and $2,000, and this includes also Snow & Green's Addition, making a body of land for park purposes of almost one hundred acres, contiguous to the city. In this improvement, there were over two hundred and flfty condemnation cases, which were prosecuted to successful terminations by subject of sketch. The preliminary survey of water-works was made by Mr. Cook, Assessor, of Cleveland, Ohio, and S. P. Judson, City Engineer. Many other improvements of minor importance were carried out. Graham avenue was established, which passes around the south side of the park grounds, now known as Fairview Park. Alderman A. C. Graham used his best efforts for the establishment of this avenue, which now bears his name, and as a public drive it is the finest in the city. These improvements will always be a benefit to the present citizens and a blessing to those who will become future inhabitants, and remain a perpetual monument to the care of these administrations in providing free public resorts for coming generations. The last improvement was the procuring the right of way for the extension of Washington avenue, a much-needed  improvement, which was made under a resolution of the Council instructing the City Attorney to procure the right of way for their work, which was immediately commenced, and, after the award of damages to owners, the Council instructed the City Attorney and Alderman R. F. Rain to settle with property owners as they thought best. They settled all of the cases except one, which cost about $7,000. This amount was paid out on the order of the City Attoruey.



HOWE, Henry & Son

New and secondhand store, Council Bluffs. Henry Howe has been a resident of Pottawattamie County for about sixteen years. He was born in Ohio in 1822, and lived in that State till 1846, when he moved to Indiana, where he resided about ten years; he then moved to Harrison County, Mo., where he resided during the late war. While there, and prior to the breaking-out of the war, he had a debate with Rev. Isaac Plank on the Bible position of slavery. Mr. Howe taking the ground that the Bible did not uphold slavery while Mr. Plank maintained that it did. This debate caused so much excitement that Mr. Howe was arrested, and, after having a trial of two days before a Justice of the Peace, was bound over to wait the action of the Grand Jury, but uo bill was found against him. During the war, he was not in the regular service, but was Captain in the State Militia for some time. His early life was spent on the farm; during the war, he published a paper in Bethany, the county seat of Harrison County, Mo., but about the close of the war he sold out his printing office and came to Council Bluffs, where he engaged in the trust business, which he followed for five years; he also followed farming for some time, his farm and residence being just outside the city limits; he began his present business in October, 1881, keeping all kinds of new and second-hand furniture, his stock being worth from $15,000 to S20,000; he owns the store building and residence adjoining it; his son, A. B. Howe, is now in partnership with him. Mr. Howe has been married three times. In Ohio, in 1842, he married Miss Amanda Roby, who died in Indiana in 1850; his second wife, whom he married in Indiana, was Miss Elizabeth Irwin. In Iowa, in 1868, he married Mrs. Lodema Irwin, his present wife. He has nine children living, five sons and four daughters; he has been a member of the United Brethren Church since ho was sixteen years old, and when twentyfour years, became a local preacher, and has since continued to preach the Gospel; he traveled on a circuit for two years; he has been a Republican since the organization of that party.



HUGHES, E. H.

Confectioner, Council Bluffs, was born in Hamburg, Fremont Co., Iowa, April 8, 1861, son of J. A. and Jenny (Clune) Hughes; he is a resident of Fremont County, Iowa; died in Alabama during the war; she resides in Glenwood, Iowa. His parents had two children. He received his education chiefly at Glenwood, Iowa, where he began business as a clerk with Mr. Townsley, in whose employ he remained about three years. He came to Council Bluffs January 10, 1881, and engaged in business in company with Mr. Townsley, at No. 12 Main street, where he has since remained. Mr. Hughes is a young man of fine business qualities, and is sure to be successful, while his partner, Mr. C. H. Townsley, is one of the most substantial business men of Mills County, Iowa, where he carries out business. They carry on a general confectionery and fruit business, keeping on hand a full line of confectionery and oysters, ice cream, etc., in their season. Mr. Hughes purchased, in the summer of 1882, one of the finest soda fountains in the city, which furnishes a constant supply of the cooling beverages. He is doing a large and steadiily increasing trade.


HUNTINGTON, Robert

Grocer, Council Bluffs, is an Englishman; was born in 1820, and, crossing the Atlantic in 1866, he came immediately to Council Bluffs. He has been twice married; first, in 1840. His wife dying in 1864, he again married in 1866, just before coming to America. He immediately bought a farm of 320 acres, and continued in the occupation of "tiller of the soil" for fourteen years. He has given to his children all of his land except 120 acres. He recently bought twelve acres near Fairmount Park. He built the first house on Graham avenue, also the first one in the township of James. Mr. Huntington is Democratic in politics.


JACKSON, James A.

Council Bluffs, whose portrait appears in this work, is one of the most prominent men of the West, and has done more for the good of the Missouri slope, in Iowa, than any other man whom we could name. His history has an interest for all the active business men of Council Bluffs and Omaha. He was born in Ohio in 1829. His parents moved to Missouri when he was very young, where his father soon after died, leaving the mother with a family of nine children, to be raised amid the hardships of a frontier life in Missouri. But she kept her trust well, and lived to the ripe old age of eighty-five, dying in Council Bluffs January 1, 1882. She was followed to her last resting-place by a large number of friends, having been very highly esteemed by all who knew her. Of her children, two live in Council Bluffs - W. C. Jackson, and the subject of this sketch, James A. Jackson. Andrew P. and Franklin L. are in California, having gone there in 1852. One daughter, Mrs. Julia Record, now resides in Glenwood, Iowa. Subject's father was a native of Virginia, and was a near relative of Gen. Andrew Jackson. His mother was a Cessna, of Pennsylvania, the Hon. John Cessna being her nephew. Mr. Jackson has seen all of our Western country grow up. Attended the treaty held with the Indians, on the west bank of the Missouri River, in 1852, Maj. Gatewood acting on the part of the Government, Mr. Jackson assisting him. This treaty was held about fifteen miles south of Omaha. Mr. Jackson is a good conversationalist, and can entertain one for hours with his reminiscenses of the early days in Iowa and Nebraska, in fact of almost the entire West. He attended the first sale of lots in St. Joseph, Mo., so that he has watched its growth, as well as that of Sioux City, Omaha and Council Bluffs, with the greatest of interest. He was one of the original owners of Sioux City and Omaha. Mr. Jackson came to this city in January, 1851, and opened in business in general merchandise, and in 1855 opened a branch establishment in Omaha. The successors to his Omaha branch are " Tootle & Maul," a very heavy firm to-day. Located another branch in Sioux City in 1856, chartering a steamboat and unloading the first goods that were brought there. He built what is known as the Empire Block, in 1854, which was burned in 1868. The part of the city known as Jackson's Addition was named in his honor. His fellow-citizens appreciated his efforts in behalf of their town, and in 1852 elected him County Treasurer. About this time he met the beautiful young belle, Miss Henrietta St. Aubin of New Orleans, and being as impressionable as young men generally are in the presence of beauty, fell in love with and married her, in 1852, thus exciting the envy of his young associates for bearing off so captivating a prize. Mrs. Jackson is still living, and wears the charm which always clings about a once beautiful woman - perfect elegance. The State Bank of Iowa was organized here in 1860, Mr. Jackson being one of the stockholders, also its President. Our present First National Bank is its successor. Mr. Jackson let his efforts for the good of the west take in Omaha also. He built the first brick house erected there, taking his brick from Council Bluffs. The said house was used as a capitol building, which he was influential in securing to Omaha. Thus he kept on, all the time using his money for the public good. He continued in business here until 1865, when he sold out aud moved to St. Louis, engaging there in the wholesale grocery business. His untiring energy and business talent took him to the front rank among successful men of that city, while his wife's beauty and accomplishments won them a prominent place in social circles. But, alas! his health broke down under his increase of care; and selling out there, he went to the Western plains, in 1876, to regain strength, which he soon did in the pure, bracing air, and freedom from anxiety. He then entered into the cattle business, in company with his son Andrew, and has been very successful in that, as in everything else, at present owning as extensive a ranch as he can take care of in justice - one of the most extensive in the West. Mr. Jackson has two children (still living), Andrew M. Jackson and Georgiana Jackson, the wife of Judge Andrew S. Wilson, of Kansas, whom she married in 1881. His son Andrew was married in April, 1878, to Miss Carrie Rice, of Council Bluffs, the daughter of A. T. Rice, of the First National Bank. Andrew, while inheriting the tireless energy of his father, possesses in a great degree the grace and elegance of manner of his mother, and has her dark eyes and hair. He was engaged here for several years in a wholesale grocery trade, but finally sold out, in 1878, to enter into stock business with his father, in Wyoming. He has one son, a bright little fellow of three years, who bears his grandfather's name, and let us hope, will have his active business tact and clear-headed management.


JACQUEMIN, C. B.

Jeweler, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluflfe in May, 1865. He keeps a large stock of clocks, jewelry and fancy goods; he has a splendid location, and is doing an immense business. The firm consists of C. B. Jacquemin, his brother, and George A. Garner. Mr. Jacquemin was born in Luxemburg, Europe, in 1838; came to America in 1852, and settled in Missouri, where he learned his trade. He has been a member of the School Board for six years, and was Mayor of the city in 1865. During his term as Mayor, the terminus of the Union Pacific Transfer was located here.


JAMES, H.

Grocer, Council Bluffs, was born in Bucks County, Penn., February 3, 1850, and was educated in the public schools of Norristown, Penn. In March, 1869, he came to Council Bluffs, where he engaged as clerk for Wright Bros., with whom he remained about one year. He then engaged in the grocery business on his own account on the corner of Bancroft street and Broadway, where he carried on business for about eight years. He then removed to his present place of business, corner of Main and Willow streets, where he has since remained, doing a constantly increasing business, and carrying a full stock of staple and fancy groceries, fruits, etc. His store occupies the entire ground floor of the building, fifty feet in length, twenty-three feet in width. He carries a stock of about $20,000, and his annual sales amount to about $20,000. He married, October 10, 1872, Lizzie McCammon, of Council Bluffs, formerly of Canada, and, by this union, they have one child - Harry, aged nine years. Mr. James is a member of Excelsior Lodge, No 259, A. F. & A. M. of Council Bluffs.



KELLER, John

Council Bluffs, one of the oldest and most respected citizens of Council Bluffs, was born at Elzes, in Eastern France, October 23, 1815, where he spent his youth. He came to America with an older brother in 1836. Lauding in New York, he began to learn the trade of cabinet-making, and, after serving his apprenticeship, he went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and followed the same calling. From there, he went to St. Louis, and from there to Western Missouri, where he resided some time. Afterward coming to Council Bluffs, he entered the land where his dwelling is now situated in 1855, and in 1854 brought from Missouri the first fruit trees ever planted in the county. In 1841, he was married to Rebecca Runyan, a native of Center County, Penn., and of this marriage one son was born - Victor L. Keller, who served in the Union army throughout the civil war in the Second Iowa Battery. Mr.  Keller has been noted for his kindness to orphan children, having reared and educated three since coming to Council Bluffs. Mrs. Keller died here on the 18th day of April, 1882. Mr. Keller is a member in most excellent standing of the Masonic order. He is still a man in most exeellent health, possesses a wiry frame, and is gifted with strong mind and body. By care, prudence and industry, he has amassed considerable property, and owns some of the most valuable real estate in the city of Council Bluffs. He was among the first to demonstrate the practicability of fruit-raising in this climate, and has made it a most positive success.


KELLER, S. S.

Furniture, Council Bluffs, was born in Franklin County, Penn., in 1838, where he received his education, and remained till 1856. He then moved to Indiana, and, in 1862, entered the One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. He remained in the service till the battle of Gettysburg, when his regiment was mustered out. In the spring of 1867, he came to Council Bluffs, where he worked at the carpenter's trade with Johnson & Orr for nine mouths; then began business for himself as a contractor and builder. In 1870, he went to Utah, where he engaged in the grain trade with N. J. Bond; returned to Council Bluffs in 1871, where he engaged in the furniture business with J. M. Scott, at the corner of Broadway and Byrant streets, andafter being in business some time under the firm name of Scott & Keller, bought out Mr. Scott's interest. He then ran the business himself, occupying the entire three story building, and in the fall of 1881 he moved to the opposite side of Broadway into the building that he had built the previous summer. This building, which comprises two stories and basement, is seventy feet long and forty-three feet wide; the warehouse in the rear is one story in height and forty feet long by forty feet wide. Mr. Keller started in business with but little capital, but has succeeded in building up a good trade. He carries a full line of furniture and household goods. In 1873, he added undertaking to his business, and carried on business alone till 1876, when he formed partnership with Messrs. Morgan & Dohaney, carrying on business under the firm name of Morgan, Keller & Co. The business is under the management of Mr. Morgan, who is an experienced undertaker. In Council Bluffs, in 1874, Mr. Keller married Libbie Noble, of Carroll County, Ill. He is of German descent; during the year 1881, he held the office of Alderman of the Second Ward. He is a member of the I. O. O. F. of Council Bluffs.



KELLEY, Harman

Marble works, Council Bluffs, was born in Vermont in 1820, and, in 1849, removed to Western New York, where he remained till 1872. In 1873, he came to Council Bluffs and engaged in marble-cutting; he employs six men in the shop and two on the road; carries about .$2,000 worth of stock, and his annual sales amount to about $9,000; he has always been engaged in the marble business. He was married in Vermont; his mother is still living in Western New York, at the advanced age of eighty-nine years; his father died there in 1868. Mr. Kelley is a member of the Masonic fraternity.


KELLEY, S. H.

Druggist, Council Bluffs, was born in Cedarville, Herkimer Co., N. Y., in 1819; his father moved to Otsego County, N. Y., in 1827; our subject came to Council Bluffs in 1857, and engaged in the drug business, in which he remained until 1862, when he sold his interest to his partner, Mr. Kynett. and took a trip for his health; he went to Syracuse, N. Y., where he finally opened a drug store; he remained here until the spring of 1880, at which time he returned to Council Bluffs, where he again opened out in the drug business; this time on Lower Main street. He carries about $6,000 in stock, with annual sales amounting to $10,000.


KIRKLAND, P. C. & W. D.

Jewelers, Council Bluffs. Mr. P. C. Kirkland was born in Scotland. He resided in Washington County, Wis., for about eight years, then moved to Minnesota, where he lived for about a year; he then followed boating on the Mississippi River till the fall of 1868, when he came to Council Bluffs; here he engaged with the telegraph company for about thirteen months; then with the gas company about eleven months, and, in 1870, entered the employ of James Brewster, wholesale grocer, Broadway, Council Bluffs, with whom he remained until he entered into his present business. Mr. P. C. Kirkland was married, January 19, 1879, to Miss M. J. Brewster, niece of James Brewster, and by this union they have been blessed with one son, Charles W. In August, 1882, Mr. P. C. Kirkland. in company with Mr. W. D. Kirkland, of Sheboygan County, Wis., opened their present jewelry store at No. 329 Broadway, Council Bluffs, where they keep on hand a complete stock of watches, clocks, jewelry, silver and silverplated ware, spectacles, etc. Mr. W. D. Kirkland is an experienced workman, and guarantees all work. They solicit an inspection of their stock, feeling satisfied tliat they can please all.



KIRKLAND, T. C.

County Auditor, Council Bluffs. The most severe test to which a man's standing or reputation in a community may be subjected is, perhaps, when he becomes a candidate for office. In the fall of 1881, Mr. T. C. Kirkland passed through such a test, and was elected to the office of Auditor of Pottawattamie County, on the Republican ticket, and by a majority of 627, the total vote cast for him in the county being 2,489, which was the largest vote cast for any Republican candidate. He took formal possession of the office in January, 1882. Having spent eight years in the same office as Deputy for John Bennett, he entered upon the discharge of his duties with a full knowledge of the responsibilities of the office. He was born in Jefferson County, N. Y. and when six years of age his parents moved to Sheboygan, Wis., where he received a good education, and engaged in the drug business, which he followed until he came West in 1867. From 1867 until he began as Deputy for Mr. Bennett in 1874, he was engaged in railroad business, principally contracting on the Northern Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroads. He has lost nothing in popularity since becoming an officer of the county, and, should he desire it, he will probably be re-elected.



KIRSCHT, L.

Wholesale grocer, Council Bluffs, was born in Germany in 1829, and served three and a half years in the Prussian Army. In 1854, he came to America, and, in 1856, was married at Hillsdale, Mich. From Hillsdale, Mich., he went in the fall of 1856 to St. Joseph, and came to Council Bluffs May 11, 1861; here he opened a retail grocery, in which he met with good success, and gradually increased his business until he is now doing an extensive wholesale trade, employing four men in the store and one traveling salesman. He carries about $30,000 worth of stock, and his yearly sales amount to about $100,000, and are steadily increasing. Mr. Kirscht served in the City Council in 1869 and 1870, and has been Township Trustee for many years. He has a family of six children, all living at home; he Las a fine residence on Glen avenue; he is a staunch Republican. Mr. Kirscht's mother came to Council Bluffs June 25, 1881, and died in August, 1882, aged nearly seventy-one years.



KNOTTS, Rev. Joseph

Council Bluffs, was born on the 24th of September, 1832, at Knottsville, Monongalia Co., Va. He spent his earlier years on a farm at home, and acquired such an education as the best facilities in his native county afforded. In his early manhood, he also engaged in teaching, and being a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, he joined the West Virginia Conference of that religious body as au itinerant minister. In 1860, he came to Iowa, and was transferred to the Iowa Conference, and was assigned to duty in the western part of the State. When the conference was divided, territorially, he became a member of the Des Moines Conference. He traveled several circuits in the central portion of Iowa, and in 1865 was appointed to Council Bluff's, serving for two years as pastor of the Broadway Church, and it was through his energy and during his ministration that that fine edifice was built. He was afterward appointed agent of the Church Extension Society of the Des Moines Conference, and served in that capacity for two years, when he was appointed Presiding Elder of the Council Bluffs District, and served with marked ability for four years. During the period of his incumbency as Presiding Elder, he was a delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. His health having failed him and being obliged to cease in the active ministry, he engaged in the book and job printing business in 1872, and published the Inland Advocate, a religious newspaper, for several years, and the Weekly Independent, a journal devoted to news and politics from an independent standpoint. His establishment was in the east end of the Ogden House Block, and when that was destroyed by fire in the fall of 1874, he became the principal sufferer. In his efforts to save his jeopardized property his disease was aggravated, and he was unable to resume the business. He went to Washington City and spent the winter, and hearing of the glowing prospects of mining operations in Northern Mexico, from gentlemen who had visited that section, he began to turn his attention in that direction. He was appointed a United States Consul to Chihuahua, and went south to explore the country for silver mining prospects. He succeeded in securing the Parral mines by a contract, and resigning his consulate, he came back to the United States, and organized a mining company to develop the property. From that date to this he has given almost his entire attention to silver mining, not only in Mexico, but in New Mexico and Arizona, and has amassed a handsome fortune through judicious investments. Mr. Knotts was married to Miss Rebecca Hall, a native of Barbour County, Va., on the 9th of October, 1855, in Hancock County, Ill. They have been blessed with a large family of children. The two older sons - Abraham and Thomas - being engaged with their father in his business, mining interests.


LANGE, J. C.

Of the firm of Lutz & Lange, wholesale cigars and pipes, Council Bluffs, was born in Russia in 1846; came to the United States in 1867, and settled in Brooklyn, N. Y., where he was employed in an architect's office; he left there in 1869, and went to Burlington, Iowa; stayed there two years, then went to St. Louis, and from there came to Council Bluffs in December, 1878. Mr. Lange was married in December, 1873, in Ottumwa, Iowa, and has three children, one boy and two girls. He is an active Democrat.


LAWRENCE, Dr. N. D.

Council Bluffs, was born in St. Lawrence County, N. Y., in 1822; was educated in the Rensselaer Institute, New York, and at the Vermont University, from which latter institution he graduated. He practiced the medical profession in New York, and in 1868 came to Council Bluffs. He was married in New York in 1846 and has been blessed with two children - Frank E. and Ella M. Frank E. was born in 1848, and in 1878 married Elizabeth Cody Stanton, who has borne him one daughter - Margaret Livingstone Stanton. Ella M. was born in 1851, and in 1871 married John Monell, son of Dr. Monell, of Omaha, Neb. They had one daughter, Anna Mabel, who came from Omaha on a visit to Dr. Lawrence in Council Bluffs, and while there died, in February, 1880, aged two and one-half years. The Doctor has been elected Mayor of Council Bluffs three times. Since he came here, he has made three trips to Europe.


LEE, John C.

Contractor, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1871, and engaged in business here in 1874. He was born in Canada in 1845, and lived there till he came to Council Bluffs. He is a railroad contractor, and has worked on several of the railroads centering here. In 1878, he married Miss Anna Leonard, whose parents reside on a farm near Neola, Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Lee have one child living - Mary, fifteen months old. Mr. Lee's parents still live in Lanark County, Canada. His grandfather, Martin Condred, was a soldier in the French Army under Napoleon; crossed the Alps with him, and was with him at Waterloo.



LEUTZINGER, Jacob

Baker, Council Bluffs, was born in Switzerland in 1840. His parents' family, which consisted of five children, came to this country in 1847. They went to Southern Illinois, settling at a point twenty-five miles east of St. Louis, Mo. Our subject was engaged in the bakery business in the latter city from 1856 to 1859, when he came to Council Bluffs April 1 of that year. He is the leading baker of Council Bluffs, and is sole proprietor of the Empire Bakery of this city. He was married in 1870 to Anna Hiltonberg, of this city. They have two children - Anna, aged eleven, and Matilda, who is six years old.


LINDT, John

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born and raised in Erie, Penn. He received his education in the public schools of Erie, Penn., and also attended the Oberlin College, Ohio. At the age of fifteen years, he entered the army, becoming a member of Independent Battery, Company B, First Pennsylvania Light Artillery, and participated in the engagements at Dallas, Buzzard Roost, New Hope Church, Resaca, Peach Tree Creek, Kenesaw Mountain, Rome, Spring Hill, Franklin, Nashville and Atlanta; was through Sherman's campaign and Thomas' campaign with Hood, and was discharged at Harrisburg, Penn., in 1865. Before entering the army, he had studied law, and in 1866 he again commenced reading law. He came to Council Bluffs in the spring of 1870; in 1871, was admitted to practice in Iowa, and has practiced his profession in Council Bluffs ever since. He was married in Mishawaka, in 1873, to Sarah Griffin, a native of New York, of Quaker descent. They have had two children, one deceased. Mr. Lindt is a cliarter member of the Knights of Pythias, and has held the highest offices in that order; has been Commander of Post and Delegate to the National Convention of the G. A. R. at Baltimore, Md., in 1882, and is now a member of the National Council of Administration of the G. A. R.; he is also a member of and has held high positions in the I. O. O. F.



LUTZ, J. I.

Of the firm of Lutz & Lange, wholesale cigars and pipes, Council Bluffs, was born in Germany in 1843; came to the United States in 1865, and settled in Burlington, Iowa. From Burlington, he came to Council Bluffs in 1876. In 1877, he, in company with his partner, opened a wholesale cigar and pipe store. They employ three traveling men and have one assistant in the store besides himself and partner. They keep a stock on hand worth about $18,000, and their yearly sales amount to $150,000. Mr. Lutz was married in 1868, in Burlington, Iowa, and has five children, all at home, the three eldest going to school. He is an active Democrat.


MACRAE, D., M. D.

Council Bluffs, whose portrait appears in this work, has been a resident of Council Bluffs since March, 1867. He is a native of Edginburgh, Scotland, receiving both his literary and medical education at the University of Edinburgh, from which he graduated in 1861. He spent three years in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, after graduating, and then accepted a position as Surgeon for the Cunard Line of steamers. He remained with the Cunard Line three years, during which time he crossed the Atlantic seventy-five times. The half of the last "round trip" landed him in New York City in 1867, where, before coming to Council Bluffs, he married Miss Charlotte, daughter of Joseph Bauchette, late Surveyor General of Canada, who died in 1881, aged eighty-six years. The family was of French origin and well known in Canada, which is the native place of Mrs. Macrae. The Doctor has been in active practice since his residence in the city. In 1882, he was appointed Professor of Diseases of Women in this district for the Des Moines College of Physicians and Surgeons. He is a member of the Council Bluffs Medical Society and of the State Medical Society. He is also a charter member of the lodges of the following orders in Council Bluffs: A. O. U. W., A. M. L. of H., and Equitable Aid Union. The Doctor is so well and favorably known socially and professionally that anything of a eulogistic nature in connection with the above facts would sound like flattery.


MARSHALL, George

Street car company, Council Bluffs, was born in Essex County, N. Y., in 1827. He went to Michigan at the age of sixteen, and stayed there three years, then entered the employ of Western Stage Company, coming with them to Council Bluffs in 1855. He remained in their employ for fourteen years, then left them and freighted on the plains eight years. In 1869, he began Government and mail contracting, and continued until 1879, when he took charge of the street car barn. He has the supervision of everything belonging to the street car company, including horses, cars and track, and employs ten men. Mr. Marshall was married in 1857, in Fulton, Ind. He has one daughter - Mary.



MAURER & CRAIG

Crockery and glassware. Council Bluffs, began business in Council Bluffs in August, 1881, buying out the stock of William Whitney. They have converted their business from retail to wholesale, and are doing a large trade. When they commenced business, they had but two salesmen; now they have four, and have also two regular men on the road, as their stock has increased to five times its original proportions. Their business house is 110 feet long and 24 feet wide, three stories and basement. W. A. Maurer, senior member of this firm, was born in Sandusky, Ohio, June 1, 1856. At an early age, he removed with his parents to La Porte, Ind., where he was educated in the public schools, and graduated from the high school there about the year 1870. That same year, he became salesman in the retail crockery and glassware establishment of H. T. Culver, at La Porte, Ind. He afterward managed the business of D. C. Decker, wholesale crockery and glassware, La Porte, Ind., and in 1880 went South and engaged as salesman for L. A. Mueller, dealer in crockery and glassware. July 17, 1881, he came to Council Bluffs and formed partnership with J. H. Craig, and they have since continued in business together. J. H. Craig, junior member of this firm, was born in Cahaba, Ala., April 3, 1859, and during the late war lived at Milledgeville, Ga. In the fall of 1868, he moved to Selma, Ala. During the years 1876 and 1877, he attended the State University of Alabama, at Tuscaloosa, Ala., and from September, 1877, till the spring of 1878, attended the business college, at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. In September, 1878, he began working the General Freight and Ticket Office of the Selma, Rome & Dalton Railroad, at Patona, Ala., where he remained till December 4, 1878, when he accepted the position of bookkeeper for Knapp, Stout & Co., at Prairie Farm, Wis. He was soon promoted to the position of assistant book-keeper at the headquarters of that company, at Menomonee, Wis., where he remained one year. He then went back to Selma, Ala., where he remained until he started for Council Bluffs, at which place he arrived August 5, 1881, and immediately became a partner in the firm of Maurer & Craig.


MAYNE, W. S.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born in Clark County, Ohio, in 1835; removed with his parents to Ottumwa, Iowa, in the fall of 1848, and thence removed to Van Buren County, Iowa; his father was elected Judge of Van Buren County, and removed to Keosauqua, Iowa, in the fall of 1851. Our suliject attended a private school in Keosauqua, and, in 1853, entered the Iowa Wesleyan University at Mount Pleasant, from which he graduated in 1856, he being the first graduate of that institution. He began reading law with C. C. Nourse, afterward finishing with Hon. G. G. Wright, then sitting on the supreme bench of Iowa, and was admitted to the bar in 1858. He began the practice of his profession in Keosauqua, where he remained until 1872, when he removed to Red Oak, Iowa, where he formed a partnership with the present Attorney General of the State - Smith McPherson. In the fall of 1875, he came to Council Bluffs, where he took charge of the business of the law firm of Baldwin & Wright, while the latter was attending the session of the Legislature, The following spring, Mr. Mayne formed a partnership with George F. Wright, and continued in the firm till July, 1877, when he formed a partnership with Marshal Key, and under the firm name of Mayne & Key. carried on the practice of law till August, 1880, when Mr. Mayne took up the practice of Mr. Ross, the latter having gone to Iowa City. Mr. Mayne is now located in L. W. Ross' old office, corner of Main street and Broadway, Council Blutfs. In May, 1864, he married Miss R. E. Mangum, a native of Van Burea County, Iowa. Mr. Mayne was a member of the City Council in 1880 and 1881, and, in the spring of 1882, was elected City Attorney on the Republican ticket, the first election under the new charter.



MERRIAM, R. N.

Groceries and provisions, Council Bluffs, was born in Princeton, Worcester Co., Mass., in 1837, and when he attained his majority moved West to Iowa. He served in the army three years and three months, entering the Fourth Iowa Infantry as private, and being discharged as Sergeant. He came to Council Bluffs in the fall of 1864. Started in business with his brother, in eompany with whom he continued till 1872, when he bought out his brother's interest, and has since carried on the business himself. He employs three assistants in his store, and carries about $3,000 worth of stock, his yearly sales amounting to $20,000. In 1871, he married Miss Lucretia M. Lewis, of Pennsylvania, and they have been blessed with four children - Freddie, ten; Harry, seven; Bessie, five, and Ottie, three years old. Mr. and Mrs. Merriam are members of the Presbyterian Church.


METCALF. Thomas

Wholesale and retail dealer in hats, caps, buck goods and clothing, was born in Chardon, Geauga Co., Ohio, and in 1871 he married Miss Eva Canfield of Chardon, Ohio, and they have two children - Thomas, aged ten, and Frank aged eight years. Mr. Metcalf came to Council Bluffs in the fall of 1867 and opened a hat and cap store on the south side of Broadway in a room eight by twenty feet. Here he remained two years, then moved into one-half of J. M. Philip's store, and in 1880 moved into his present stand. The firm of which Mr. Metcalf is a member carried on the hat and cap business exclusively for eight years, then added clothing. They employ six assistants aud carry about $50,000 worth of stock, the annual sales amounting to $150,000. H. H. Metcalf, senior member of the firm, was married in 1868, to Miss Lida Brownsfield of South Bend, Ind. George Metcalf was married in 1878, to Helen Rue of Council Bluffs, and they have one child - Clara, one and a half years of age.


MILLER, F. C.

Physician, Council Bluffs, who has recently become associated with Dr. Rice in the practice of medicine, is a native of Granby, N. Y., where he was born March 31, 1857. He resided there until twelve years of age, when his parents removed to Bristol, Ill., where they resided for eight years and then removed to Maryville, Mo. There the Doctor began the study of medicine and subsequently attended and graduated from the St. Louis Eclectic Medical College. He graduated in the spring of 1882, and in March, the same year, he married Miss Jennie M. Gaunt of Maryville, Mo. A short time subsequent to this event he came to Council Bluffs, and effected a partnership with his uncle Dr. R. Rice. Under the instruction of one so thoroughly capable of advising him, he begins the practice of his chosen profession under most favorable circumstances.


MITCHELL, J. C.

Ticket agent, Council Bluffs, was born in Mystic, New London Co., Conn., May 27, 1856. In 1866, he moved with his parents to Owatonna, Minn. In 1870, he accepted a position as operator at St. Paul, and was afterward at Stillwater, Minn., in theemploy of the Lake Superior & Mississippi Railway Company. Here he remained about one year, when he went to St. Peter, Minn., as operator and clerk for the Chicago & Northwestern Railway Company, He remained in the latter company's employ for about five years. He assisted his father for about a year and a half, in the latter's store in Owatonna, Minn. He came to Council Bluffs in the fall of 1880, when he accepted the position of Ticket Agent for the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company. Our subject is of English and Scotch descent.


MOHN, Max

Proprietor of the Creston House, Council Bluffs, was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, December 6, 1843, where he was educated, and where he lived till he came to America. He came to Council Bluffs June 9, 1869, and worked for Max Kreidler, boot and shoe maker, for two and a half years; he then engaged for one year as clerk for Charles Beckman, in the leather business; then worked for Louis Zurmuelon four and a half years, and, in 1877, went into partnership with his sister, Mrs. Weber, in the hotel business, on South Main street, in a one-story building, which would accommodate about nineteen boarders. Finding that his business justified it, he erected a fine three-story brick hotel, with stone front, costing $12,000, with twenty-four sleeping apartments, and nine other rooms, having now about fifty regular boarders, and a large transient custom. Mr. Mohn was married, in June, 1879, to Anne Betz, and by this marriage they have one daughter. In 1881, he bought the building occupied by Thrall & Kracht, grocers, for $2,500, and, in November, 1881, bought for $7,000, a two-story brick building, containing one large room down stairs occupied as the billiard hall and bar, and with four rooms in the upper story.


MONTGOMERY, P. J.

Physician, Council Bluffs; though a resident of this place but a little over two years, the Doctor has already established himself in the practice of medicine in a very satisfactory manner. He is a native of Delaware County, N. Y., and on his father's side isa lineal descendant of Gen. Montgomeny, while by his mother, who was an Abbott, he traces the genealogy of his family to the Abbots of England, and to the Mayflower pilgrims of that name. When he was eleven years of age, the Doctor's parents moved to Wisconsin; his education was received principally at the Albion Academy of Dane County, Wis.; he studied medicine with Dr. D. L. Davis, of Waterloo, Iowa, an allopathic physician, and also with Dr. L. N. Squire of the same place, who was a homoeopathic physician. In 1866, he graduated from the Hahnemann Medical College of Chicago; he also attended the Chicago Medical College, an allopathic institution, and, in addition to this, he took a course of lectures at the Homiston Institute College of Cleveland, Ohio. During last two years of the war, he served in the Nashville City Hospital, or what was better known as the College Bluff Hospital. In May, 1880, he was appointed Surgeon of the Wabash Railroad at this point. He is a member of the Northwestern Academy of Medicine, and was President of that society in 1881; he is also a member of the State Homeopathic Medical Society, and is now holding the position of Chairman of the Bureau of Surgery in that society. His success in practice and the honorable position he has held in the medical societies is due to his extensive study of the science of medicine, and to the honorable course he has pursued since he became a resident of the Bluffs City.


MORGAN, R.

Undertaker, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1874 and opened an undertaking establishment, employing two or three men steadily. He was born in Chautauqua County, N. Y., in 1821, and began business in Jamestown in 1842. In 1844, he moved to Sinclairville, N. Y., aud engaged in the manufacture of furniture, and then moved to Corry, Penn., in 1855, where he remained till he came to Council Bluffs. He was married in Jamestown, N. Y., in 1842, and has a family of twelve children. His wife dying in 1861, he again married in 1879. Mr. Morgan united with the Baptist Church at Buffalo at the early age of fifteen. He was the founder of the First Baptist Church in Corry, Penn., maintaining the minister for the first six months himself, and was Trustee and Deacon while he remained in that city. Is also Trustee and Deacon of the First Baptist Church of Council Bluffs at the present time.


MUELLER, J.

Musical merchandise, Council Bluffs, is a native of Bohemia; subsequently became a resident of Prussia, where he resided for ten years, and in 1857 came to the United States and settled in Wisconsin. In 1859, he came to Council Bluffs and engaged in teaching music. He continued teaching as a business until 1864, when he began the sale of musical instruments and musical merchandise, running the two together until 1869, when he gave up teaching and turned his attention exclusively to the sale of instruments and music. In the meantime, however, he was burned out, by which disaster he lost $8,000 worth of goods, and was left $1,300 in debt. He lost none of his energy and business ability, and in a short time was making fair progress toward accumulating another handsome property. In 1869, he began business in the old Bee Hive building, where he remained until 1881, when he removed to the fine building which he now occupies, and which is his own property. The building is twenty-five by eighty feet, three floors and basement, all of which is filled with musical instruments, musical merchandise and toys. He now does an extensive wholesale trade, having about three regular men on the road and six or seven men in the house. He imports largely in sheet music and instruments. The Chickering & Sons, Weber and J. Mueller are among his best pianos, and tho Burdett Standard and Western Cottage organs; of the latter organ he is Western agent, and has sold of them in the eight years about 3,400. His annual sales now aggregate about $100,000. His success cannot be ascribed to luck, for every step of progress has l»een carefully considered before an important business movement has been made. There are probably but one or two instances in Council Bluffs of like success.


MYNSTER, William A.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, is a native of Copenhagen, Denmark, born October 13, 1843. and is of Danish parentage. On his third birthday, he was with his parents on the ocean on the way to America. They first settled permanently at Washington, D. C., where they lived three years, then moved to Louisville, Ky., where they lived one year, and, in 1851 came to Kanesville, now Council Bluffs. Mr. Mynster was educated at Sinsinawa Mound, Wis., and St. Louis University. He studied law with Clinton & Baldwin of Council Bluffs, whose office was then located opposite the present city building; afterward pursued his law studies in New York City, and at the Albany Law School N. Y. He graduated from that institution in 1866, having conferred on him the degree of LL. B. The following year, he opened a law office in Council Bluffs, and formed partnership with B. W. Hight, present Supreme Court Reporter of Iowa, who was a classmate of his at the law school. This firm dissolved in 1872, and Mr. Mynster entered into partnership with James & Aylesworth, and remained in that firm until 1877, when he entered into partnership with C. F. Adams, which firm still exists.



NASON, W. Gerald

Agent for the Council Bluffs Insurance Company, Council Bluffs, was born in Schenectady, N. Y., May 15, 1837; came to Iowa in 1855, and located in Boomer Township, Pottawattamie County. He farmed there until July, 1856, at which time he went to Omaha, Neb.; went to work in hotel there, and remained until November of the same year. He then came to Council Bluffs, where he drove a team until the following spring; then went back on a farm, and remained there until March, 1859. He then, in connection with his brother, engaged in the grocery business in Council Bluffs, in which they continued until December, 1859. He then went back again to the farm, and remained there until July, 1860, when he went to Colorado with his brother and engaged in mercantile business in Cottonwood Springs; he remained there three months ; then returned to this county and went back on the farm, and remained there until September, 1862. He then enlisted in Company E, Sixth Iowa Cavalry, and was mustered out June 20, 1865, after which he returned to the farm. Mr. Nason was married February 10, 1866, to Miss Maggie McKenna, of Delaware, Ohio, and removed to Council Bluffs April 15, same year, and engaged in the wood and railroad-tie business. He again engaged in farming in March, 1867, and pursued that occupation till April, 1873, when he again removed to Council Bluffs. Here he engaged in the insurance business with the Continental Insurance Company, with which he remained until January, 1880, at which time he resigned his position with that company and took the superintendency of agencies of the Council Bluffs Insurance Company. He has also been representing five Eastern insurance companies as local agent of Council Bluffs. The duties of the Council Bluffs Company keeps him almost constantly on the road. He has a brother engaged in stock business in Montana, who is very wealthy, and also a brother in Boomer Township, this county, a farmer, who has been on the same farm for twenty-seven years. He has two sisters, married, who reside on farms in Boomer Township. Mr. Nason has been one of the very few who have made a success of the insurance business. He was educated in the town of Boonville, Oneida Co., N. Y.


OSBORNE, F. J.

Dealer in staple and fancy groceries, Council Bluffs, was born in Canada; his mother died in May, 1874; his father is still living in Canada. In 1876, he married Miss Lillian Hilton, daughter of Dr. Hilton, of Council Bluffs, and by this marriage they have one child - Florence, an infant nine weeks old. Mr. Osborne went to Michigan in 1879, and the following year came to Council Bluffs. Here he engaged in the grocery business, which he has since carried on, doing an annual business of about $35,000. He employs four men. and carries from $4,000 to $5,000 worth of stock. He has two brothers and two sisters. One of his brothers, W. H., is married, and lives in San Jose, Cal., where he is engaged in the milling business. The other brother is in the dry-goods business in Chicago. His two sisters, one of whom is married, reside in Canada.



PALMER, J. M.

Real estate, Council Bluffs. He came to Council Bluffs in 1854, and engaged in real estate business. He built the block in which the Nonpareil is now located in 1856. In 1860, he was elected Assessor, and in 1861 was elected Mayor of Council Blutfs; re-elected to the latter office in 1862, and in 1870 was again elected Mayor. During this time he was engaged in real estate and tax paying business. In 1871, he built the Transfer House at the Union Pacific Transfer; kept that house five years, and then sold out to Markel. Since that time he has been engaged in the real estate business, and in building tenement houses; his office is at 503 First avenue. Mr. Palmer was born March 10, 1827, in Chester County, Penn., and was reared and educated there. At the age of twenty-one years, he engaged in the butchering business in Chester County, Penn., near Coatesville, and until he came to Council Bluffs was engaged in buying and selling cattle for the Philadelphia market. When he arrived in Council Bluffs, there were but four houses in Omaha. His ancestors came to America a great many generations ago.


PALMER, J. W.

Dentist, Council Bluffs, was born in Vinton, Benton Co., Iowa, September 2, 1861; lived there four years, then moved to Iowa City. After residing in Iowa City for six years, he moved to Harrison County, Iowa where he lived until the fall of 1879, when he came to Council Bluffs. Mr. Palmer began the study of dentistry under Drs. Swinton & West on Pearl street, Council Bluffs, in the spring of 1882, and purposes completing the study of his profession at the Iowa City Dental College. He is a son of Capt. J. E. Palmer, of Company A, Twenty-eighth Iowa Volunteers, who was born in Ohio in 1821, and, who was killed September 19, 1864, at the battle of Winchester, his remains being brought back to Vinton, Iowa, for interment. Subject's mother was born in Essex County, N. Y., in 1822, was married at Vinton, Iowa, in 1856, and resided there until 1862.



PASCHEL, Henry

Real estate, Council Bluffs, was born in Poland October 14, 1825, where he lived until 1845, and after traveling all over Europe came to America in 1853, for the purpose of seeing the country. He traveled over a great part of the United States, and finally settled in Sioux City, Iowa, where he built one of the first houses in that place. In 1856, he married Miss Anna Kasberg, and from this union seven children have been born - Mary, the eldest, was born in Ponca, Neb.; Theresa, who married Mr. H. Swing, of St. Helena, Neb., was born in St. Joseph, Mo.; and the remainder of the family were all born in Council Bluffs. The third daughter, Anna, is at present in the convent at Dubuque, while the other two girls are at home. The two boys (twins), aged sixteen years, are both employed in Council Bluffs, one with Empkie & McDoel, the other with Erb & Duquette. Mr. Paschel first came to Council Bluffs in 1854, but did not settle permanently till 1860, when he moved here from Sioux City. He had begun the business of life as a brick-layer, and when he came here he engaged as a brick-laying contractor. In 1868, he abandoned brick-laying, and engaged in the real estate business, which he had formerly followed in Sioux City, Iowa, and has met with gratifying success. He is not an agent for anybody, but handles his own property; he owns fourteen buildings in Council Bluffs, and handles from $5,000 to $10,000 worth of property.


PATTON, Dr. W. L.

Physician, Council Bluffs, is a native of Virginia. He moved to Missouri in 1853, and resided in that State nine years, during eight of which he practiced in Kirksville, Adair County, of that State. He came to Council Bluffs in 1865, and followed his profession as a physician and oculist. He went into the drug business in 1867. After two years, he sold out and opened up in the same business a second time, in connection with Mr. M. Beardsley. They carried nearly $7,000 in stock, and continued in this business for two years, when they sold out, after which our subject attended strictly to his practice. During the last two years, he has treated 352 cases of eye and ear difficulties. He owns a fine livery stable on North Main street. He opened an undertaking establishment September 1, 1882. He has 106 feet front on North Main street, valued at $20,000. The Doctor was married in Virginia, in March, 1852, to Miss Elizabeth C. Rogers, daughter of John Rogers, who died in Harrison County, this State, in November, 1880, aged eighty-two. Mr. and Mrs. Patton have seven children, four sons and three daughters. His oldest boy - A. B. Patton, is at present a telegraph operator in Pueblo, Colo. Douglas S. is in Omaha, in the employ of the Union Pacific Railroad Company. The next boy - William, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in Council Bluffs in 1880, and is now in Kokomo, Summit Co., Col. His three daughters - Jennie, Effie and Lulu, are all at home. His youngest boy - D. D., is also at home, and is a fine musician.


PHELPS, George T.

Ogden House, Council Bluffs, Iowa. The gentlemanly proprietor of the large and popular hotel, the Ogden House, took charge of that hotel in 1876. His genial disposition and happy faculty of understanding the needs of the inner man, most thoroughly render him that hard-to-be found mortal - an efficient and universally-liked landlord. Mr. Phelps was born in Chatham, N. Y. in 1842. His father was a railroad contractor and moved to Massachusetts when our subject was one year old, to fulfill a contract there. In 1860, his business took him to Illinois, from whence he returned to Massachusetts on the breaking-out of the war. Here George T. enlisted as a private in the Twenty-sixth Massachusetts Volunteers, and was discharged June 21, 1865. He entered the service as a private, and came out as Quartermaster Sergeant. After this, he was engaged for one year in the wholesale feed and grain business. He followed in the footsteps of his father, and came to Council Bluffs in 1866, as a contractor on the Chicago, Burlington & St. Joe Railroad; and, on its completion assumed the general management of this division of the road, in which capacity he continued until the spring of 1869, when he went East as a contractor on different roads in New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut. He returned to Oakland, Pottawattamie Co.. Iowa, in 1873, staying there three years, when he assumed the proprietorship of the Ogden House, which had but shortly before been rebuilt after the fire of 1875. The Ogden House averages sixty arrivals per day, and has, besides, many regular boarders. Mr. Phelps was married in the spring of 1869, to Miss Anna Baldwin, daughter of John T. Baldwin, of this city.


PHILLIPS, J. M.

Boot and shoe dealer, Council Bluffs, was born in Essex County, Mass., March 15, 1820, and resided there nearly thirty-nine years. In the fall of 1858, he removed to Pottawattamie County, Iowa, and took charge of a boot and shoe business, which had been started in the fall of 1856. Mr. Phillips served six months' apprenticeship to the tanners trade, and also learned the shoemaker's trade in Essex County, Mass., where he carried on the manufacture of boots and shoes, previous to his coming to this county. He first started business in Council Bluffs, in a log storehouse, located back of where Robison & Bro.'s jewelry store now stands, but late in the fall of 1856, he moved to his present business stand. Mr. Phillips had then the only exclusive boot and shoe store in the city, but all the merchants carried a small stock in that line. There was a two-story frame building on the lot when he first moved in, in the fall of 1867. He was burned out in 1868, and then built the brick building that he now occupies. He is a leading boot and shoe dealer of Council Bluffs, and does a wholesale and retail business. He has established a fine trade through Iowa and Nebraska, and his business is steadily increasing. His retail business during the months of July and August, 1882, amounted to three times as much as the sales for those two months the previous year. In the early years of his business in Council Bluffs, he always purchased his goods six months ahead, owing to the fact that boats could not get up this far at all months of the year, and he was therefore obliged to lay in his stock six months ahead. Mr. Phillips was first elected Alderman for 1863 and 1864, and served in that office for six successive terms, and then positively declined to serve any longer. He is one of the prime movers in the organization of the Savings Bank of Council Bluffs; was Vice President of that bank for a number of years; was one of the first stockholders and directors, and is still a director of the bank. He was elected a member of the Board of Supervisors in 1880, and still holds that oflfice. He moved his family to Council Bluffs from St. Joseph, Mo. He has had seven children, six of whom are living - Milton David (deceased), Nathan C., Mary O., J. M., Emma C., Russ M. and Grenville Dodge. Mr. Phillips is one of the oldest business men in Western Iowa; his business has increased from $4,000 to $20,000 a year.



PHILLIPS, R. V.

Proprietor handle factory, County Bluffs, was born at Crown Point, Essex Co., N. Y. He came to this State in 1849, and settled in Jackson County. For five years, he was with Mr. P. Mitchell, of Maquoketa, who is called the pioneer merchant of the West. He (subject) came to Council Bluffs in 1859, and established a handle factory. He manufactures all kinds of wooden handles, and splits all liis timber, instead of sawing it, thereby making a more durable and otherwise superior article. He supplies many different railroads with his goods, having furnished the Union Pacific Railroad with handles for eleven years. He was married in Clinton County, this State, in 1854, to Miss Anna L. Smith. They have four boys, all of whom assist their father in the factory. Frank, aged twenty-six; Don, aged twenty-two; Edward, aged twenty; and Charles, who is eighteen years old. They also have two daughters, one living in Creston (the wife of T. S. Douglas), and the other, Belle, living at home.


PINNEY, C. H.

Physician and surgeon, Council Bluffs, was born in Elyria, Ohio, August 30, 1842, son of H. H. and M. Abbey Pinney, who now reside at East Saginaw, Mich. H. H. Pinney is a farmer by occupation, was born at Farmington, Conn., in 1806; his wife was born in Syracuse, N. Y., in 1810. Subject received his preliminary education at Clarkson, Ohio; took an academic course and finished his professional studies at the University at Ann Arbor, Mich. At Council Bluffs, September 30, 1870, he married Ella O., daughter of W. H. M. Pusey of that city. By this union, they have been blessed with four children - William H., Hulburt H., Lucilla K. and Frank. The Doctor was elected Coroner of Douglas County, Neb., for a term of four years. During the late war, he entered Ninth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry as Surgeon, and served in that eapacity for three years. He graduated from the University of Ann Arbor, Mich., in 1862, and, after the war, spent eight months in the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, from which he also graduated. From Philadelphia, Penn., he came to Omaha, Neb., where he practiced medicine for eight years, and in 1874, moved to Council Bluffs, where he has since held the position of one of the most prominent physicians and surgeons of that city. He was examining physician for applicants for cadetships. The Doctor is a member of the Masonic fraternity in Omaha, Neb., and in politics is Republican.



POULSON-FAGERSTJERNA, Dr. Peter Wilhelm

He was born at Copenhagen, Denmark, December 14, 1831. His father was born in Denmark, but of Swedish parents, and belonged to a prominent old Swedish family, of military distinction and nobility, the Counts Fagerstjerna. His mother was also born in Denmark, but her parents were of German descent, and lost their great wealth when the Danish Government, bankrupt, repudiated the national debt in 1808, and many of the bondholders were financially ruined. His grandfather, Poul Svendson Fagerstjerna, retired from military service, as his father, Svend Nielson Fagerstjerna, also did when at the age of forty, and Poul sold his property in Sweden and settled in Denmark, where he bought large farms near Copenhagen, and also an extensive brickyard, but five years later he died suddenly from pneumonia and left the children as minors. His widow married again, and the Doctor's father, as the youngest son, was given a military education in the Danish Army. His great love for mathematics and architecture made him, however, make it his favorite study. The long line of his mother's ancestors were ministers of the Lutheran Church. His mother's father, Johan Peter Gudenschrager, lived on the island Moen where he owned much land and two grist mills. His father, Ole Poulson Fagerstjerna, became anarchitect and builder by profession, and when the Doctor was only five months old his father accepted the management of a large manufacturing company at Copenhagen. By moving, the baby took a cold, and a congestion of the lungs. Dr. Berg, the family physician, declared it fatal, and told the mother to call next day and get the death certificate, but when he stopped his visits the child got well. When five years old, the boy was sent to the Royal Military Elementary School. There he remained six years, and graduated when eleven years old. He was then put in the Royal School of Education, where he remained four years, and graduated at the age of fifteen. Only one and a half years later the war broke out between Denmark and Prussia, and the rebellion of Schleswig and Holstein and Lunenburg made it hot for the country to save itself. He became filled with patriotism, and volunteered, much against his father's will, and entered the Danish Army as Corporal; finished the first campaign with distinction, and was, in the fall of 1848, sent to Copenhagen to enter the graduating class of the military academy, and was appointed Sergeant. After graduation, he was sent back to his regiment and made his second campaign of 1849 as Quartermaster of the army, and the youngest on record. After the battle at Colding he was among the 2,000 men whom the main body of the army left behind as a garrison at Fort Fredericia. In ten weeks it was terrifically bombarded day and night, but defended with courage and tenacity against the 20,000 enemies which surrounded it. A re-enforcement of 16,000 men arrived by sea, and July 6, 1849, the battle of Fredericia was fought, leaving 6,000 dead and wounded on the field, but the German Army was entirely defeated, the entire siege artillery, two hundred pieces of field artillery, and two thousand prisoners were taken. The soldiers came to Copenhagen as the victorious army, and held the entry under a rain of flowers and the most deafening enthusiasm of the nation. According to his father's express wish, he resigned a few months later from active service in the army, and studied the two following years at the university at Copenhagen. In the summer of 1852, he entered the Royal Jonstrup College, where he remained three years and graduated in 1855. He commenced again his study at the university, devoted especial care to medicine, and was appointed one of the Professors at St. Anna's Citizens' School. At the same time, he pushed on his studies at the Royal Military High School, which he graduated from in 1860, and attained the rank as First Lieutenant of Artillery. During the same year, he entered the Royal Common Hospital as Volunteer Surgeon, and retained that position for three years till 1863, when he concluded to emigrate to the United States, and received his professional testimonials from the hospital and the university. The King granted him a permit of absence for two years from military duty, and bid him good-by. In June, 1863, he landed at New York, and was cordially received by the medical profession. July 3, he finished an eight days' rigid examination before the New York Aeademy of Medicine, and the New York County Medical Society of Homceopathy awarded him their diploma and right hand offellowship. He started then for the West, with intention to locate at Kansas City, but it was during the war, and arriving at St. Joseph, he embarked on a steamer for Council Bluffs, Iowa.

Before leaving New York, the Doctor had some idea of going to practice in Charleston and enter the Southern Army as a Surgeon or officer, but his medical friends got him to abstain from such an intention, and on his journey through Missouri Quantrell's band made a raid on the Hannibal & St. Joe Railroad, and killed a large number of Union soldiers not armed and on a visit home. This horror of civil war disgusted him much with the Confederate warfare, and he consoled himself later with the study of the Council Bluffs Bugle. On his arrival in this city July 21, 1863, Mr. Burke was the editor of the Nonpareil, and he became soon the Doctor's friend, patient and patron, and made him a good, black Republican, and a great admirer of Abraham Lincoln. Very soon a large practice greeted him, and he built a residence on Upper Broadway, but, in 1865, his health was shaken by too much work, and he concluded to leave and was too exhausted to undertake a seavoyage for home. He sent a petition to the King of Denmark for resignation, which was granted him with royal grace as First Lieutenant of the artillery, and with rank as Captain of Infantry and the royal war medal for services rendered the country was later conferred on him. On his arrival in New York, he was about dying from nervous prostration, but being relieved from practice he studied and recuperated slowly, and in March, 1866, he graduated from the New York Homeopathic Medical College. Wishing for a more congenial climate, he went to sea to Aspinwall and across the Isthmus to Panama, and sailed for San Francisco, Cal. During his voyage from Couucil Bluffs, he had the misfortune to suffer shipwreck twice. First, on the Missouri River, fifteen miles below St. Joseph, where the steamer Deer Lodge struck a snag and sunk; the passengers were saved, but all his books brought along from Europe, a sixteen years' careful collection, were lost, and a value of more than $5,000 consigned, not insured to the depths. The passengers happened to come ashore on the Missouri side, and spent a night among bushwackers, and all that saved them was probably that the bandits were ashamed to rob and kill shipwrecked people; next day they got teams hired for St. Joseph. The second shipwreck happened on board the Panama mail steamer Constitution, when in a terrific gale she ran ashore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, off the eoastof Gautemala, and, in a sinking condition, she arrived at San Francisco several weeks too late. In the Golden City, health and strength was regained, and aside from the dreary sea fogs, he had no reason to dislike San Francisco. During 1869 the overland railway was finished, and he went on a visit to Council Bluffs partly of curiosity of seeing the new scenery, and to visit his brother at that place. When he entered Council Bluffs in August, epidemics of diphtheria and dysentery prevailed, and very soon he was busy in a large practice, in which he remained to 1874, when an accident was the cause of his second exodus to California. At a curve near the Union Pacific depot, street cars were frequently thrown from the track. One morning in January, after a hard night's frost, the car rushed down hill with a lightning speed, and the horses approached the curve in a gallop; the passengers were screaming, and he jumped the car, knocking his knee against the rail and inflicting a very severe wound. The cold weather and want of rest made the wound very painful, and he left on the Union Pacific Railroad for Salt Lake City. There he was laid up for weeks, and recovered slowly, and left June 24 for San Francisco. In Utah as well as in California, he did some practice, but left again for Iowa during 1875.

During the winter of 1876 and 1877, he practiced at San Francisco, and returned in the spring to Council Bluffs, where he has been in practice since. In 1866, at a meeting held at St. Louis, Mo., the National Medical Convention of the United States, the American Institute of Homeopathy showed him the honor of electing him a member of that body. A few weeks after his arrival at Council Bluffs in 1869, he bought the Kirkwood Bamford farm, Willow Creek, one mile east of Crescent City. There be has built a new addition to the house, and planted twelve acres of a now bearing orchard. The Iowa State Medical Society of Homeopathy elected him, 1870, a member and also censor of the society. During 1873, he bought 120 acres new land adjoining his farm, and had it fenced and cultivated and built a new home in it, and created a new farm by the name of Timberdale. On a central plateau between the two farms, it is the Doctor's intention very soon to raise his long projected Sanitarium, called Petershof, which will be open for patients from May to October every year. Several years in succession, he has been a State Delegate to the National Medical Convention, and at that Convention, held at New York in 1881, he was elected a delegate from the United States to the International Medical Convention of Homeopathy held at London that year. Only a severe illness prevented him from sailing for England, and he missed a pleasant and interesting journey to Europe.

During his young days, he studied at the aesthetic department at the University of Copenhagen, the ancient and modern classic literature, and wrote, at the age of eighteen, his first dramatic work called "Magnus the Good, King of Norway." His next work is "A Night in the North," an epic poem of 100 pages. Next, he issued a volume of poems. In 1860, he published a translation from German to Danish of Dr. Arthur Lutree, ''The Chronic Diseases." During his years in America, he published, in 1869, a pamphlet, "The Duchies and the Policy of Germany." This political hrochure was written in Danish and published at Copenhagen. It was followed in 1870 with another, which caused the greatest sensation at home, and a newspaper discussion for months, and was called, "The Diplomacy of Germany and Scandinavia and Russia." Even the Government organ, the Berlin Times, had its columns open in defense of its diplomacy, and the editor of the People's Times called attention to the pamphlet in the loudest terms as a national necessity. During his visit to California in 1876, he wrote a new dramatical work of 226 pages of print, called "Kay Lyrre," printed at San Francisco. Besides general newspaper articles, he has published numerous essays on medical and surgical topics, which the readers of the Chicago Medical Investigator are familiar with. During the winter of 1881-82, he translated and wrote many new additions, translated from Danish to English the "Great Drama of Henry Hertz, called Sveud During's House," with intention to have it played during the coming winter on the American stage. At present, he is working on three different books. A new original drama, "Olaf Tryggason, King of Norway," is about written. A medical domestic hand-book is he going on with, and a work on the philosophy of the Ethics of Messiah is also ready for print. Prof. Dr. Carsten Hauch was his teacher in Esthetics at the University of Copenhagen. In eight years, he was a pupil of that distinguished dramatist. ^When he had finished his manuscript for Kay Lyrre, at San Francisco, he sent it for Prof. Hauch's perusal, and several hints of value were given. Dr. Hauch praised especially the scene where the Queen thinks she is betrayed, in these words: "That scene is written with a master's pen." Prof. Dr. Heiberg, known as an eminent critic of dramatic literature, read his drama "Magnus the Good," and gave especial scenical and technical points, and said, "Keep up good courage to sing with as to fight by." In June, 1879, he graduated from the American Health College at Cincinnati, Ohio, and is now only anxious to get means suflScient to disposition, by which his great hospital and sanitarium can be built and completed in the neighborhood of Crescent City. It will be a national institution, treating only nervous and chronic diseases, and open only during the summer months, and receiving its patients mostly from the Atlantic States of the Union.


PUSEY, N. M.

Council Bluffs, became a resident of Council Bluffs May 17,1877; he was born in Washiugton County, Penn., June 21, 1841; removed to Baltimore, Md., in the fall of 1849, where he was educated, and continued to reside till his removal to Council Bluffs. He read law under the tuition of Messrs. Cochran & Stockbridge, and practiced at the Baltimore bar from 1864 till his removal West. He was married in May, 1865, to Miss Gertrude A. Morgan, the daughter of Rev. N. J. B. Morgan, a celebrated Methodist divine. He has been a continuous practitioner of law since his admission to the bar in 1864.



RAYMOND & CAMPBELL

Bridge builders, Council Bluffs. E. W. Raymond, the senior member of this firm, was born near Lockport, N. Y., in 1842. He left New York when a boy and went to Illinois; was in the Quartermaster's office in Jackson, Tenn., Vicksburg and Memphis. In August, 1868, he came to Council Bluffs, where, in 1869, he was married. He has two children - William Randolph, aged twelve years, and Anna Belle, both attending school. Mr. Raymond's mother died here in 1879; his father, who is now sixty-four years of age, lives with him. Mr. Campbell, the junior member of the firm, was born in Prince Edward Island in 1849, and came to the United States in 1867. He came first to Omaha, Neb.; worked there for one year, then worked in Schuyler, Neb., at bridge-building for H. T. Clark for three years. In September, 1874, the present firm of Raymond & Campbell was formed, and they are doing a heavy business in bridge-building, employing about fifty men, and doing a business of $200,000.


REED, Judge Joseph R.

Council Bluffs, is a native of Ashland County, Ohio, born March 12, 1835. His father, William Reed, was a native of Washington County, Penn., a farmer by occupation, and was of Scotch ancestry. He married Miss Rosanah Lyle, daughter of Robert Lyle, also a farmer of Washington County, Penn., and came West and located in Ohio in 1829. They raised a family of six children, all of whom are still living - James O., a resident planter and railroad contractor of Louisiana since 1864; Sarah J., a maiden still living in Ashland County; Elizabeth, wife of Rev. D. A. Newell, a Presbyterian clergyman of Mercer County, Penn.; William, a merchant of Loudonville, in Ashland County; Rosanah, wife of Jesse Hessen, a lawyer of the same I town, and our subject, who is the third of the family. Judge Reed secured his rudimental schooling in the common schools of his native town, and closed his school days in an academy. He left Ohio and came to Iowa in 1857, and first located in the town of Adel, in Dallas County. There he engaged in teaching, devoting a portion of his time to the study of law; was admitted to the bar of the State in March, 1859, and from that time practiced his profession in Dallas County until 1861. At the breaking-out of the rebellion, he entered the army as Lieutenant in the Second Iowa Battery, from Dallas County; he served as Lieutenant about three years, and in September, 1864, was promoted to the rank of Captain, which commission he held until July, 1865, when he returned home. His battery figured in the entire campaign before Vicksburg, also at the battle of Nashville, later at Mobile, and was in many other minor engagements, the most important of which was the battle of Tupelo, in July, 1864. Judge Reed's personal tastes inclined him to the study of law, which he prosecuted without the aid of a tutor, and entered upon its practice alone. He came to Council Bluffs in 1869. In 1870, he formed a law partnership with B. F. Montgomery and Judge James, under the firm style of Montgomery, Reed & James. In 1871, Mr. Montgomery retired from the firm, and Messrs. Reed & James continued the business until September, 1872, when Mr. Reed was appointed Judge of the Third Judicial District of Iowa, to fill the vacancy occasioned     by the election of Judge McDill to Congress. Judge Reed, after completing the unexpired term, was duly elected to fill the place which he now occupies. When a practitioner, Judge Reed was known as a thorough, industrious and painstaking attorney. He is now known as a prompt and impartial Judge of the law, disposing of his judicial business with dispatch, and to the general satisfaction of the bar. He was married, November 1, 1865, to Miss Jenette E. Densmore, daughter of James E. Densmore, a farmer of Ashland County, Ohio, a native of Pennsylvania. He came to Ohio in 1833. He had three daughters and four sons, Mrs. Reed being the fourth of the family, and was born in York County, Peun., April 20, 1833.



RHODABECK, J. C.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, began reading law in 1853, in Newark, Ohio, with E. C. Smythe; was admitted to the bar in Franklin County in 1856, and began the practice of his profession in Harrison County, Iowa, in 1868. Previous to this, however, he was speculating in land in Benton County, Iowa. In March, 1881, he came to Council Bluffs, where he was engaged in the practice of law. His grandfather on his mother's side was of English descent; his grandfather on his father's side was of German descent, and his grandmothers were of Scotch descent.



RICE, R., M. D.

Council Bluffs. The science of medicine has grown to such an extent as to admit of many specialties in the practice. After a general course of study in order to graduate from any of our leading medical colleges, it has become the custom of many of the best students to turn their attention to some important specialty in the practice and in their chosen field devote the time and hard study of their career as a practitioner to adding new points and new discoveries to that science upon which mankind has grown so dependent. What more important study than the treatment of the cancer could be taken up as a specialty, and what more difficult to treat successfully? For hundreds of years the cancer was considered incurable; this, too, by the best medical authority; and it is only by the patient study of eminent physicians, who have made a specialty of this dreaded affliction, that in later years thorough and permanent cures are not uncommon. For years it was the custom of the physician to use the knife in the removal of the cancer, and even to the present time this is practiced to an extent. The same science, however, which has made the custom of blood-letting by the barber - in honor of which their signs were painted with a red stripe - a thing of the past, has also discarded the use of the knife in removing the cancer. No better evidence is needed of the success of the science of medicine in this respect than a talk with .some of the patients of Dr. R. Rice, of Council Bluffs, or a visit to the Doctor himself, where abundant proof awaits the incredulous. A brief sketch of the experience and course of study of the Doctor may not prove uninteresting. He was born in Coventry, N. Y., March 15, 1820, and resided there until six years of age, when his parents moved to Whitestown, Oneida Co., N. Y. The ensuing time until he had arrived at man's estate was spent in Holland Patent, Oneida County, and in Fulton, Oswego Co., N. Y. After receiving a careful literary education, he began the study of medicine, and subsequently graduated from the Eclectic Vegetable Reform College of Fulton. He began practice in Fulton, N. Y., and remained there till 1868, when he removed to Sandwich, Ill. There he practiced eight years and then removed to Council Bluffs, where he arrived in the spring of 1875. He at once opened up an office and began practice, and since that time he has been steadily increasing his practice until at present he is known as the most successful physician in the treatment of cancers and other chronic diseases of the Missouri Valley.


RICHMOND, William

Wholesale and retail grocer, Council Bluffs, was born in County Cavan, Ireland, July 12, 1845, and at the age of sixteen years emigrated to the United States with his parents and settled in Green County, Wis. He received his education in his native country. He followed farming for four years, and then engaged in the hotel business in Manchester, Iowa, for three years. He then traveled for the grocery house of Harper Bros., Chicago, until he came to Council Bluffs in October, 1880, and began business at No. 14 Pearl street, where he has since remained. His store occupies two stories 90 feet long and 20 feet wide, the lower floor containing the retail department of the business, the upper floor containing teas, spices, etc., and the cellar is stocked with sirups, oils, vinegar, etc. He began business with about $2,000 worth of stock, his annual sales then amounting to about $50,000. He now carries about $5,000 worth of stock, and from present prospects his annual sales for the present year will amount to about $100,000. He employs three men in his establishment and keeps nine men on the road, and expects soon to increase his force of traveling men. Mr. Richmond is a member of the Masonic fraternity.



ROHRER, M. F.

Commission, Council Bluffs, became a resident of Council Bluffs in 1871. He came to the city in the interests of a milling firm of Wathena, Kan., and finding the place possessing attractions for him over other cities of the West, he quit traveling and settled down, and, instead of stopping three months, as he at first intended, he has prolonged the time to about eleven years. He was born in Rohrersville, Washington Co., Md., on what afterward was the Antietam battleground, August 1, 1850, and at the time that battle was fought, he was a lad twelve years old. Even at this age, he was pressed into the service as a nurse, as his father's house and barn were turned into hospitals, and all possible aid rendered by the family to the wounded soldiers of the Federal army. He was a witness of that terrible battle, and, boy though he was, did manly service in caring for the wounded. His first employment in Council Bluffs was in the capacity of salesman for the firm of Bracket & Golden, with whom he remained about one year. This was in 1872. In 1873, he acted as Deputy Sheriff for George Doughty. In the latter part of 1873, and until August of 1875, he was engaged as bill clerk for the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and as agent for the Burlington & Missouri Railroad in Nebraska. He then engaged in the insurance business in company with his present partner by the purchase of the business of Messrs. J. P. and J. N. Cassady. Changes were subsequently made in the firm, but Mr. Rohrer continued interested in the insurance and real estate business until he engaged in the storage and commission business in November, 1881, under the firm name of Bowman, Rohrer & Co. He is, however, still largely interested in the real estate business, though only in property owned by himself. He has taken an active part in all enterprises of a local nature. In 1871, he joined Rescue Hand Engine Company, No. 3, and was shortly after made Vice President, which office he has since held. He is P. G. of Hawkeye Lodge, No. 184, I. O. O. F., and is P. C. P. of Twin Brother Encampment, No. 42, of that order; he is also a charter member of Widvey Temple, No. 5, P. C. He had served one term as Township Clerk, and in the fall of 1880, while he was in Missouri, he received the nomination for a second term, though he had left positive orders that he would decline to become a candidate for the office. This was the more provoking as the Republicans had put up a colored man as their candidate. There remained but one of two things for him to do, either to withdraw and let the public think he was afraid to enter the contest, or to enter the field with a colored man as an opponent. He chose the latter, and was elected by a good round majority of 800 votes, though he did not want the office. With this election, the term of office was changed to two years, so he is still filling the position. In 1877, he was married to Miss Sarah B., only child of John B. and Eliza Beers. Mr. Beers was one of the most prominent real estate dealers and property owners in the city, as well as the first wholesale grocery merchant. A more complete sketch of his life, however, will be found in another part of this work. Mr. Rohrer, though a young man, has builded for himself a good, honorable reputation in the city of Council Bluff's. That he is in every way worthy of the position he holds in both social and business circles is evidenced by his popularity among the best citizens of the city.


ROSE & McMAHON

Abstract and loans, Council Bluffs. The firm of Rose & McMahon was formed July 1, 1882, the members of the firm being S. C. Rose and P. J. McMahon. Their office is on the ground floor of No. 4 Pearl street, Council Bluffs. P. J. McMahon was born in Council Bluffs January 5, 1859, and is a son of the celebrated Dr. P. J. McMahon, who died in 1875, from the effects of blood-poisoning. His grandfather on his father's side was a native of Ireland; his ancestors on his mother's side came to America many generations ago. His mother's uncle - Austin King - was Governor of Missouri. Mr. McMahon received his education in Council Bluffs, in the public schools and under private tuition. In 1876, he began clerking for A. D. Foster & Co., druggists, with whom he remained one year, then engaged with J. D. Edmundson, real estate dealer, with whom he stayed till October, 1880. He then started the business in which he is at present engaged, at 506 Broadway, Council Bluffs, and in January, 1882, removed to present office, No. 4 Pearl street.



ROSS, Joseph

Cooper, Council Bluffs, was born in England, and came to America at the age of ten. He came to Iowa in 1857. He has a fine farm in Crescent Township, where he stayed two years and a half, coming to the Bluffs in 1872. He carries on a heavy coopering business, employing from fifteen to eighteen men. His family consists of three children - Daisy S., aged six years ; John T., aged four years, and Charlie, who is three years old.



SCANLAN, M.

Meat market, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in May, 1876, and has been in his present market since. He served seven years' apprenticeship at his trade in Philadelphia, Penn., beginning at the age of fourteen and serving till he was twenty-one years old. He was born in Philadelphia, Penn., in 1821. His parents died when he was small, and there being no free schools at that time, he did not go to school till after he was fourteen years old, and then only attended night schools. Once during his apprenticeship, he ran away, but the next morning, seeing that a reward of $100 was offered to anyone who would return him, he went back on his own account, knowing that he would be caught if he did not do so. After he was twenty-one years old, he worked only about two months in Philadelphia. Then went to Pittsburgh, Penn., and followed steamboating for about six years. Duringthis time, he went down to New Orleans on a tow-boat, and was afterward on the Gulf of Mexico for some time. In 1848, he was married, in Pittsburgh, Penn., to Miss Martha Sneathen. He then began butchering in Pittsburgh, Penn., and from there went to Wheeling, W. Va., and remained there till 1876, when he came to Council Bluffs. He has four children living - two sons and two daughters, all married. He is Republican in politics, and was a Whig before the Republican party was organized. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias and I. O. O. F.


SCHURZ, N.

Schurz & Strohbehn, grocers, Council Bluffs, was born in Prussia. He came to the United States in 1858. He served four years and three months in the civil war, part of the time in the One Hundred and Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania Regiment, and the balance in the navy. He responded to Lincoln's first call for three months' men. He came to Council Bluffs in 1868, and was employed by a wholesale queensware house, where he stayed for a year and a half, when he moved to Weeping Water, Cass Co., Neb. He engaged in the mercantile business, but was burned out in 1873, losing everything. He immediately returned to Council Bluffs, and the following spring went to Missouri Valley, where, engaging in business, he regained all that he had previously lost. He returned to Council Bluffs in 1879. Schurz & Strohbehn have added a fine stock of cigars, and will hereafter do a wholesale business in that line. Our subject was married in Pennsylvania to Miss Eliza E. Lindt, sister of Mr. John Lindt, the well-known lawyer of Council Bluffs. They have two boys - Emil, aged fourteen, and Herman, aged twelve.


SCOFIELD & CAVIN

Council Blutts. Ira Seofield and T. E. Cavin formed partnership in general merchandising business June 1, 1877, at 218 Broadway, and continued in that building until September 1, 1878, at which time they removed to the new building, corner of Broadway and Market, 200 Broadway, using two stories and basement with elevator attachment. Besides doing a large city trade, they ship goods to railroad contractors in Iowa, Minnesota, Colorado and New Mexico. They started on a small scale in a room eighteen by forty feet, with cellar, and have steadily increased the Inisiness so that now they are cramped for room in a two story and basement building, twenty-two by eighty feet. T. E. Cavin came to Council BluflFs in 1866, and after close application to business, he formed partnership with Foreman & Beno of Council Bluffs, in a branch store in Logan, Iowa. Having disposed of his business in Logan profitably, he returned to Council Bluffs, and formed partnership with Mr. Scofield, as above stated.



SHUGART, E. L.

Of the Shugart Implement Company of Council Bluffs, is unquestionably among the first of that class of citizens to whom the "Bluffs City" owes much of her prosperity. He became a resident of the city in 1868, and in 1869, January 1st, he began selling agricultural implements. His chances of success were no better than those of many others who have undertaken the same business and failed under equally favorable circumstances. The opening of the business was under the firm name of Shugart & Lininger, and was continued by this firm until 1873, when Mr. F. Weis was admitted as a member of the firm. In 1875, the firm again changed, and Mr. E. L. Shugart became successor of the old firm. He conducted the business alone, until September of 1880, when the Shugart Implement Company was formed. The building occupied by them was begun in the fall of 1880, and finished in the spring of 1881. It is fifty feet frontage by one hundred feet deep and three stories and basement. This company is considered one of the leadiug business firms of the city. In 1871, Mr. Shugart was the principal founder of the Council Bluffs Agricultural Works and continued a member of the company until the works were burned in 1877. He was Vice President of the First National Bank of Council Bluffs for a number of years, and when the Citizens' Bank was organized in the summer of 1882, became Vice President of that bank. In 1871, he was elected a member of the City Council, holding the office four years by re-election, and in 1877 he was elected a member of the County Board of Supervisors for a three years' term. In the spring of 1882, he was again elected a member of the City Council, and is at present discharging the duties pertaining to that office. He is a member of the order of A. F. & A. M. and of the following lodges: Excelsior Blue Lodge, Star Chapter and Ivanhoe Commandery. Such is briefly the career of Mr. Shugart as a public and business man. He was born in 1836, in Franklin County, Ohio, and in 1850 became a resident of Bureau County, Ill. He was educated at Vermilion Institute of Haysville, Ohio, and at Smith Seminary of Princeton, Bureau Co., Ill. September 20, 1860, he was married to Miss A. R. Donning, a native of Bureau County, Ill., and who was educated at Mount Carroll Seminary. They have two children living, both boys, aged respectively nine and sixteen years.


SHULTZ, F. A.

Hotel-keeper, Council Bluffs, was born in Chriswig, Germany. He was the son of E. and Anna (Rosakir) Shultz. His father was born in Chriswig, Germany, and was a shoemaker by trade. He came to this country, and went to Davenport, Iowa, in 1866; here he lived about five years, when he moved to Sheridan County, Mo., where he lived nine years and then came to this county. His (subject's) mother was also a native of Chriswig, Germany, and died in Sheridan County, Mo., in 1875. Our subject's parents had eight children. He (subject) lived with his father until the spring of 1880, when he came to this county, and engaged in farming. He was a shoemaker by trade, and worked at this in Germany, but since his arrival in America he has been engaged in agricultural pursuits, until the spring of 1882, when he opened his hotel in Lewis Township, this county, in which business he has since been engaged. He was married in the fall of 1871, at Davenport, Iowa, to Catherina Ikener, born in Chriswig, Gerraanv, in 1852. She was the daughter of John and Christina (Thompson) Ikener, both natives of Chriswig, Germany. Mr. and Mrs. Shultz have five children - Mollie, Albert, Emma, Laura and Annie. They are members of the Lutheran Church. In politics, Mr. Shultz is a Republican.


SIMS, Jacob

Attorney, Council BIuffs, was born November 30, 1850, at Dodgeville. Iowa Co., Wis. He served a full apprenticeship at the wagon and carriage making trade, and after learning the trade attended Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis., graduating there in the class of 1874, and taking first bonors of his class in full classical course. After graduating, he filled the position of Principal of High School at Oconto, Wis., for one year, and then engaged in newspaper business as editor of the Statesman of Milwaukee, Wis. After leaving that paper, he became editor and proprietor of the Citizen of Minneapolis, Minn. He came to Council Bluffs in March, 1878; read law with B. F. Montgomery; admitted to the bar in January, 1879; commenced practice forthwith here, and has continued in practice ever since; was attorney for Pottawattamie County during the years 1880-81. Both his parents were born in England; his father has been a Methodist minister for over twenty-five years. Mr. Sims is editor-in-chief of the Daily Monitor, a Republican organ recently founded in Council Bluffs.



SPETMAN, F. W.

Of the firm of F. W. Spetman & Bro., Council Bluffs, was born in Kane Township, this county, September 18, 1855. He attended Byrant & Stratton's Commercial College at Davenport, this State, and graduated in 1873. He started in business in Council Bluffs, in the fall of 1875, with about $1,500 in stock. The business increased to such an extent that he took in his brother, W. C. Spetman, and removed to No. 511 Main street, where his father had just completed a building, 22x70 feet, and two stories high, with a basement. But the steady increase of the business demanded still more room, and his father built an addition, 25x70, and two stories high. The firm now carry about $20,000 in stock, with annual sales amounting to $60,000. They cany a full line of general merchandise. In 1881. our subject was elected Alderman in the Third Ward, on the Democratic ticket, and served one year. He was married, September 10, 1878, to Alvini Laskowski, of Council Bluffs. Mr. Spetman is of German descent.


SPETMAN, W. C.

Of the firm of F. W. Spetman & Bro., Council Bluffs, was born in this county in 1856. He graduated from Byrant & Stratton's Commercial College at Davenport, this State, in 1875. He was married, in March, 1881, to Antoinette Ehrig, of Davenport, Iowa. He has one child - Roy Henry, aged six months.


SQUIRE, J. W.

Of J. W. Squire & Co., real estate, loan and abstract, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in the spring of 1870; entered real estate office and savings bank of N. P. Dodge, and remained there about five years. He then formed partnership with A. B. Walker, undei firm name of Squire & Walker, in real estate, loan and abstract business, and continued business under that name here until the spring of 1880, when he dissolved partnership with Mr. Walker, and continued the business under firm name of J. W. Squire & Co., having associated with him in business his brother. Their office is on the corner of Pearl and First avenue. Four men are employed in the business, including the partners. They have on hand a complete set of abstract books of the latest improved system, which are thoroughly kept up. Mr. Squire was born in Suffolk County, N. Y., February 1, 1848, and removed to Rockford, Ill., at the age of four years, with his parents. He was educated in the Rockford schools, from which he graduated; then entered the army and served three years in the Forty-fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry. He returned to Rockford after leaving the army; was Deputy Circuit Clerk and Recorder five years, and then came to Council Bluffs. He married, September 15, 1872, Elizabeth H. Howard, of West Hartford, Windsor Co., Vt.



STEINER, John

Physician, Council Bluffs, was born in Goettingen, Germany, March 30, 1842, and was educated in his native place. In 1860, he began the study of medicine in Tubingen, Germany, graduating there in 1863, and was admitted . to practice. During the Franco-Prussian war, he was Second Assistant Surgeon in the German Army, and while acting in that capacity saw a great deal of service. In 1867, he married Magdeline Frash, and they have four children, two boys and two girls. In 1873, he came to this country and located in Sac County, Iowa, where he followed farming for some time. He then moved to Audubon County, Iowa, where he followed the practice of his profession for some time, thence moved to St. Mary's, Iowa, and thence to Westphalia, Iowa. Meanwhile, he had been attending the Herring Medical College of St. Louis, Mo., from which he graduated in the spring of 1882. He then located in Council Bluffs, where he has now a good practice.



STEINHILBER, E. R.

Furniture, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in February, 1882, built a furniture factory and commenced business July 13, the same year. He was born near Davenport, Iowa, in 1857, and moved to Harlan, Iowa, in l880. He was engaged in stock business in Davenport, Iowa. He was married in De Witt, Clinton Co., Iowa, in 1880, and has one child, his little daughter Jennie. He is the only one who manufactures furniture on the Western slope. His is, in reality, a great enterprise, and he is doing, as he deserves to do, a lucrative wholesale business. He makes a specialty of all kinds of tables, cupboards, safes, wardrobes and washstands.



STROHBEHN, W.

Schurz & Strohbehn, grocers, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in the spring of 1872, and was employed by Groneweg & Co., grocers and wholesale liquor dealers. He rose from a driver to a clerk, and afterward to the position of book-keeper. The firm sold out to Mr. Kirscht, with whom our subject stayed until October 28, 1881, when he went into partnership with Mr. Schurz. Mr. Strohbehn was married in October, 1875, to Miss Christine Witt, of Council Bluffs. They have three children - Matilda, aged six; Helen, aged four, and William, who is two and a half years old. Our subject's parents live in Silver Creek Township, this county, where they have a farm of 200 acres. The father is sixty-eight and the mother sixty-six years old.


SWAN BROTHERS

Packers, Council Bluffs. The members of this firm, C. J., G. W. & F. H. Swan, came from Urbana, Ohio, to Council Bluffs in 1869. They are sons of Charles and Mary (Johnson) Swan, who were married at Ithaca, N Y., and who have had a family of nine children, four boys and five girls, none of whom are married. Their parents are still living; their father is a native of Norwich, Conn. The brothers engaged in the packing business in Council Bluffs in 1877. They improved and rebuilt their packing house in 1876, so as to be ready for work the following year. They do a wholesale and jobbing business, and employ six men. They slaughter cattle and hogs in the winter, killing about five hundred hogs each winter season. They also buy and sell cattle. Owing to their increasing business, they purpose improving and rebuilding at an early day. They have a residence on Stutsman street, Council Bluffs.



SWOBE, Thomas

Hotel, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1878, and opened a hotel in the new Transfer Depot building; he also built the Emigrant House in 1878, and conducts it in connection with the Transfer Hotel. In 1866, he bought out J. M. Palmer, who was running the Transfer Eating House at that time. Mr. Swobe was born in Johnstown, Fulton Co., N. Y., in 1843. His parents moved to Michigan in 1855; he enlisted in the Twelfth Michigan in 1861, as private, and returned February 2, 1866, as First Lieutenant. He came to Omaha in August, 1866, and held the position of Secretary of Central Land Company till 1868. He was married in November, 1868, and has two children - Edwin T., aged eight years, and Dwight M., aged six years. The firm of which Mr. Swobe is a member is Markell & Swobe. This firm owns, besides the Transfer Hotel and Emigrant House, half interest in the Millard Hotel at Omaha, on the Corner of Douglas and Thirtieth streets. They employ about fifty-five assistants, their yearly business being about $150,000. Mr. Swobe was elected County Clerk of Douglas County, Neb., in the fall of 1869, and served in that office until the fall of 1871.



TAYLOR, N. A.

Grocer, Council Bluffs, was born in Vermont in 1832. He entered upon the study of law in Orange County, Vt., and in 1857 was admitted in all the courts of that State. He practiced law until 1862, when he enlisted in the Thirteenth Vermont Volunteers and served one year, holding the position of Quartermaster. He was married in Vermont in 1860, and has one child - Gertie, aged fifteen years. Mr. Taylor came to Council Bluffs in 1876, and engaged as Steward at the deaf and dumb institution in that city. He opened his present grocery store in September, 1879, and is doing a rapidly increasing business, his annual sales amounting to about
$25,000; he employs two men.



TIPTON, J. G.

Attorney, Council Bluffs, was born in 1849 at Fairview, Fulton Co., Ill., and lived there until he was eighteen years old. He was educated at Abingdon College, Illinois, from which he graduated in 1872, teaching school before and after attending college, the money required to carry him through school being earned by himself teaching country school. In the latter part of 1872, he entered the law office of Robert G. Ingersoll at Peoria, Ill., and remained there the balance of that year and all of 1873. Leaving there, he entered the law office of Weldon, Tipton & Benjamin, of Bloomington, Ill., where he finished his law studies, and September 11, 1874, was admitted to practice by the Supreme Court of Illinois, then in session at Ottawa, Ill. He commenced practice at Bloomington, Ill.; was nominated by Democratic State Convention in 1876 to the office of State's Attorney, and defeated by a small majority. In the spring of 1872, he went West in quest of fresh fields of labor, arriving in Deadwood in time to attend the first day of the first term of court ever held there, said court being presided over by Judge Bennet, present Member of Congress of that district. He stayed there six months then went to Avoca, Iowa; began practice there and continued until the spring of 1882, at which time he opened an office in Council Bluffs. He was married October 31, 1878, at Avoca, Iowa, to Miss Nettie Bryant, of Avoca. Father was killed on 23d day of March, 1869, by branch of tree which hired man was felling striking him. A branch of same tree struck our subject, breaking his left shoulder and lacerating his left arm severely. After receiving these injuries, he carried his father home, one-half mile, on his right shoulder, having to cross two fences on the way. He is of Scotch descent.


UPTON, M. A.

Freight and ticket agent of Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Co., Council Bluffs, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., December 24, 1847, and, at the age of seven years, removed with his parents to Kalamazoo, Mich. There they lived till 1860, when they removed to Vernon County, Mo. Resided there till 1863, then moved to Lawrence, Kan. Mr. Upton received his education in Kalamazoo, Mich., and at the Montevallo Academy in Vernon County, Mo. In the spring of 1864, he drove a four-mule team from Leavenworth, Kan., to Denver, and thence drove the team all over the State of Colorado, and returned to Lawrence, Kan., in the fall of 1865. He then entered the Lawrence High School, after leaving which, in 1866, he occupied various positions till 1868, when he went to Kansas City, where he kept books for a commission grain house. In 1869, he returned to Lawrence, Kan., where he kept books for a wholesale stove and tin plate house for some time, then went to Vernon County, Mo., where he remained till May, 1871, when he came to Council Bluffs. Here he entered the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad freight office as clerk, and was promoted through all the different grades till, in October, 1879, he became cashier, and, six mouths after, was also put in charge of the clerical work, having twelve men under him. In August, 1882, he was appointed to his present position of freight and ticket agent for the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad at Council Bluffs. In May, 1871, he married Miss May Adams, of Burlington, Kan. He is of English descent.



WALKER, A. B.

Real estate, Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1871 as Steward of the Deaf and Dumb Institute, occupying that position until 1877, when he moved into the city. He then engaged in the real estate and abstract business as a member of the firm of Squire & Walker, continuing in that firm about two and a half years; then sold out the abstract business to Mr. Squire, and continued in the real estate business himself. In 1880, he began investing in mines in Utah and Colorado, assisting in organizing the Park Mining & Milling Company, Union Consolidated Mining Company and Lakeside Mining Company, the two first of Utah and the last of Colorado. Mr. Walker was born in 1837 in Elkhart County, Ind., and at the age of two years came with his parents to Iowa, and located on a farm near Iowa City, Johnson County. He was educated in the public schools of Johnson County, and at Galesburg, Ill. When eight years of age his father died, and, when fifteen years of age he went to live with an uncle in Madison County, Ohio, and commenced clerking for his uncle, and remained there until he was twenty-one years of age. He then returned to Iowa City and engaged in the photograph business, which he continued until 1862. He was four months in the army in 1865. In 1858, he married Loraine Byers, of London, Madison Co., Ohio. After his marriage, he lived two years in Ohio, where his wife died, and he then returned again to Iowa. He was again married in 1876 to Abbie M., daughter of Rev. G. G. Rice, one of the earliest preachers of Pottawattamie County, and the first Congregationalist ministers in this county. Mr. and Mrs. Walker visited the Centennial at Philadelphia while on their marriage tour.


WARREN, Henry P.

Deputy Clerk of Courts, Council Bluffs, was born in Palmyra, N. Y., August 21, 1820, and the following year his parents removed to Springfield, Ill., and in 1828, to Pulton County, Ill. He received his education at Oquawka, Ill., and in Fulton County, Ill. When he reached the age of twenty years, he, in connection with his uncle, began trading with the Indians, on the Des Moines River, Iowa. At Peoria, Ill., in 1846, he married Hannah L. Page, and the following year removed to Fairfield, Iowa, where he ensaged in business. In 1854-55, he held the office of County Treasurer of Jefferson County, Iowa, and in 1856 removed to Council Bluffs, where he kept books for the old State Bank, afterward the First National Bank. He was Deputy County Treasurer of this county from 1870 to 1873, and in the latter year was appointed Deputy Clerk of Courts, which office he has since held. His ancestors were New England Puritans. His son, F. H. Warren, held the position of Clerk of Courts for six vears.


WEBB, Rev. Frederick T.

Council Bluffs, came to Council Bluffs in 1875, from the Theological School at Davenport, Iowa. He was born in England in 1850. His parents came to Philadelphia when he was one year old. He entered Griswold College at Davenport in 1868; graduated in 1872. He then took a three years' course in the Theological Seminary. When he took charge of St. Paul's Parish, in Council Blufis, in 1875, it numbered fifty communicants, but now has one hundred and seventy-five - a goodly increase in so short a time. Mr. Webb is an indefatigable worker, and has been instrumental in establishing twelve churches in this Diocese. He was married in Davenport in 1874, to Miss Laura Bell Gillette. They have one child living - Ada, aged two years. In 1881, lost their only son - Frederick Lee, aged six years. Mr. Webb is a Mason of high standing, belonging to the Bluff City Lodge, Star Chapter and Ivanhoe Commandery. He is a member of the Standing Committee of the Diocese of Iowa, the Trustees of Funds and Donations, and is also a Trustee of Griswold College. He is Dean of the Southwestern Convocation.


WEIS, Peter

Grocer, Council Blufis, was born in Prussia in 1834. He came to America in 1855, settling in Wisconsin. In 1859, he came to this State. In 1866, after returning from a two years' trip through Colorado, he opened up in business in a little log building near where the Ogden House stands. He built his present building in 1878. He employs four clerks, and carries an $8,000 stock, which includes a line of hardware and agricultural implements. Annual sales, $30,000. Mr. Weis was married in Mills County, this State, in 1860. He has one child by adoption.



WELLS, Lucius

Agricultural implements, Council Bluffs, was born in Rock Island County, Ill., in 1845, and has always been in the implement and plow business; beginning, as he jokingly says, "by holding a plow by the handles." He was educated at Galesburg, Ill., and was married in 1868, at Dixon, and has one child - Emma M., aged twelve years. He is at present manager of the Council Bluffs branch of the John Deere, Moline Plow Works. He began business here when the branch was established, in December, 1881. They handle here a general line of agricultural implements. Mr. Wells left Galesburg in 1864; went to Moline, Ill., where he engaged with the Deere Company, and remained there until coming to this city. He employs twenty-five men, and carries a stock of $50,000.


WHEELER, A.

Hotel, Council Bluffs, was born in Wyoming County, N. Y., in 1836, and was educated in Alexander Academy, New York. After leaving school, he taught for some time in a commercial college. He engaged in the manufacture of leather for some time, and afterward carried on the manutacture of kitchen goods. He lived in Buffalo from 1861 till he came to Council Bluffs in July, 1881, Here he took charge of the Revere House, 549 Broadway, which contains forty sleeping rooms, a dining-room large enough to seat forty guests, parlors, sitting-rooms, etc., and all the accommodations of a first-class hotel. Since Mr. Wheeler has had charge of the hotel, its business has increased twofold, owing to his able managemeut. In 1873, he married Miss Dell Axtell, of Wyoming County, N. Y. His grandfather on his mother's side was of Scotch descent, and served seven years during the Revolutionary war. His father's people were of English descent, and came to America about the year 1760.



WHITE, U. H.

Transfer and drayage, Council Bluffs, was born in New York in 1836. His parents moved to Ohio in 1838, where he was raised and educated. He came to Des Moines, Iowa, in 1858, and engaged in the lumber trade; continuing this until 1872, when he came to Council Bluffs and opened a furniture store. In 1880, he established his freight transfer business, running four wagons and employing four men. He was a member of the City Council of Des Moines for two terms.


WINTHERLICH, H. J.

Manufacturer of iron shot, Council Blutfs, is a native of Denmark, born in 1843. He emigrated to the United States; came to Chicago in 1873, and thence to Council Bluffs in 1880. He enlisted, in Denmark, in the Sixth Battery of Artillery, and held the rank of Lieutenant. He has always been in the foundry business. He and his brother have invented a process for making iron shot, and with several other gentlemen, principally of Council Bluffs, have entered into the manufacture of the same. He has also patented a process for securing complete ventilation for houses. He was married in Denmark in 1866, and has three children. Mr. Wintherlich is an accomplished linguist, speaking six different languages.


WIRT, W. O.

Proprietor Boston Tea Company, Council Bluffs, born in Harrison County, Ohio, December 30, 1843; came to Council Bluffs in 1873, and engaged as traveling salesman with Steel, Johnson & Co., grocers, of Omaha, Neb., with whom he remained one year. He then went East, and traveled from Pittsburg, Penn., from 1874 to 1876, and in 1876 and 1877 for James Kent, Santee & Co., of Philadelphia, Penn. In the fall of 1877, he returned to Council Bluffs, and, in the spring of 1878, engaged in the retail grocery and hardware trade in company with R. O. Newell, at Red Oak, Iowa, where they carried on business for nearly three years. Mr. Wirt then removed to Council Bluffs, where he opened up his present business at 16 Main and 15 Pearl streets in the spring of 1881. He keeps a full line of staple and fancy groceries; in fact, everything to be found in a first-class grocery store can be procured at the Boston Tea Company. Mr. Wirt does an extensive trade, running two delivery wagons, and keeping three counter clerks busy all the time. He is one of the wide-awake and energetic business men of Council Bluffs.



WISE, Mason

Livery and sale stable, Council Bluffs was born in Decatur County, Ind., in 1833. He went to Missouri in 1857, from which State he came to Iowa in 1861. In 1866, he came to Council Bluffs and started a livery and sale stable. He has been in this business ever since, and now handles from 300 to 500 head of horses and mules per year. He built a large addition in 1881, which enables him to accommodate 100 head at one time. His stables are commodious and convenient, which, with a fine yard, makes his premises the finest of the kind in the West.


WOODBURY, E. J.

Dentist, Council Bluffs, was born in Bolton, Mass., in 1830. Studied his profession in Worcester, Mass., where he lived till 1852, then went to Ohio and remained there until he came to Iowa. He settled in Council Bluffs in 1858, and immediately established dental rooms. The Doctor was married in Townsend, Mass., in the spring of 1855, and has three sons and two daughters. The eldest son, H. A. Woodbury, is a graduate of Boston Dental College; the other children are at home: Dr. Woodbury is one of the most popular and best known dentists in Council Bluffs, having been in business there twenty-four years.


WRIGHT, George F.

State Senator, Council Bluffs, is one of her leading citizens, and a man of extensive influence throughout the State. He was born in Warren County, Vt., on the 5th of December, 1833. His father, Franklin A. Wright, was of English ancestry, and by occupation a farmer. The latter spent the last years of his life in Council Bluffs, and died suddenly, only a few years ago, at his residence on Willow avenue, near the Presbyterian Church. He was known during his residence here as a man of singularly sound sense, and was admired and beloved for his good temper and quiet and unassuming disposition. George F. Wright, his son, was given an excellent academic education with a view of preparing him for college, but having engaged in teaching for four or five years, he abandoned the idea of taking a degree, and moved to Keosauqua, Iowa, in 1855, and there began the study of law in the office of the late Judge Knapp and the Hon. George G. Wright, who afterward became one of the Judges of the State Supreme Court, and for one term a United States Senator. He was admitted to the bar of Van Buren County in 1856, and entered into partnership at once with Judge Knapp, Judge Wright having withdrawn to take his seat on the bench of the Supreme Court. The professional success of George F. Wright was assured from the beginning. He was not gifted with the shining qualities of the forensic orator, but his strong, good sense and his knowledge of legal principles were qualities easily recognized by those intrusting him with business, and were the safe foundation of lasting and durable success. He remained at Keosauqua until 1868, when he removed to Council Bluffs, entering at once into a law partnership with the late Judge Caleb Baldwin, which lasted during the life of the latter, and which is now extended through the membership of the firm by John N. Baldwin, the son of Mr. Wright's old partner. Since coming to Council Bluffs, the business intrusted to him and his firm has included the attorneyship of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the Union Pacific and the Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroads. In the year 1875, he became a candidate for State Senator from the district composed of the counties of Pottawattamie and Mills, his Democratic opponent being B. F. Montgomery, also of Council Bluffs. After a very active canvass, in which both Montgomery and Wright made strenuous efforts, Mr. Wright was elected, and served the full term of four years. In the meantime, the Senatorial District was so changed that Pottawattamie Countv was made a Senatorial District by itself. In 1879, Mr. Wright was a candidate for re-election, his antagonist in the Democratic party being Col. William Orr, a popular farmer and stock-grower in Hardin Township. Mr. Wright was successful a second time. As at the bar, Mr. Wright has won the respect of his fellow-Senators in both parties, by reason of his solid, substantial qualities as a man and as a legislator. Mr. Wright has not only been diligent in the practice of his profession, and active as a legislator, but as a citizen he has been singularly enterprising. He was instrumental in the organization of the Council Blufls Gas Light Company in 1868, and still has a large interest in that enterprise; also the Ottumwa Gas Company in 1871; the Mount Pleasant Gas Company, in 1871; and the Elgin Light Company, the same year; and that at Cedar Rapids, and the one at Sioux City in 1872. He is also largely interested in the several lines of street railway in Council Bluffs, and was a leader in the organization of those improvements. To him, also, are the public indebted for the inauguration of a system of  water works for the City of Council Blufls in the spring of 1881. He is a large stockholder in the company having the franchise, and gives his personal attention to the development and execution of the plans necessary to complete the work, well under way. One of the greatest enterprises to which his name is attached, and of which he is justly proud, is the great Union Pacific elevator at the Transfer in Council Bluffs. This gigantic appliance for handling grain has a capacity of 200,000 bushels. Mr. Wright's energy had much to do in inducing capital to invest in it, but in advancing it to completion under the most favorable circumstances and auspices. In all his duty in the Senate and elsewhere, Mr. Wright has kept in view the essential interests of Council Bluffs. During the civil war he was active in promoting enlistments. Upon the first call for volunteers he raised a company, and repaired with it to Keokuk, the rendezvous, but the response of Iowa was so prompt that the offer it made exceeded its quota, and the supernumeraries were allowed to return home. 3Ir. Wright was married, in 1865, to Miss Ellen E. Brooks, of Northfield, Vt., and has two sons and two daughters.


From History of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, 1883, by John H. Keatley, published by O. L. Baskin & Co.
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