Biographical History of Page County, Iowa, 1890
[transcribed by Pat O'Dell:]
[page 486] CAPTAIN J. H. PALMER, one of the thorough-going and enterprising farmers and stock-raisers of Colfax Township, is justly entitled to a complete personal sketch in a work of this character. He is a native of Ulster County, New York, born October 10, 1838. He is a son of Harvey Palmer, a native of the same county. His maternal grandmother was the daughter of a wealthy settler on Manhattan Island; his mother's maiden name was Jane Harcourt, and she was born in Ulster County, New York, a daughter of Joseph and Elizabeth (Merritt) Harcourt, members of a prominent English family. Harvey Palmer and wife reared five children, of whom J. H. is the eldest son. He was reared on a farm, and also clerked in a country store kept by his father. He attended the common schools and academy. In August, 1862, he became a member of Company A, One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York Volunteer Infantry, and served three years and three months. He was first under fire in the swamps of Louisiana and participated in the engagements at Port Hudson, Winchester, Cedar Creek, Fisher's   Hill,  and   many  lesser battles.
He enlisted in the army as a private, but was soon promoted to Fourth Sergeant, next to Orderly, and then, because of superior ability, he jumped to First Lieutenant of his company, and was soon commissioned Captain. He had charge of the gold coin captured with Jefferson Davis, which was said to belong to the Confederacy. It amounted to a vast sum, and was transported by Captain Palmer in kegs from Augusta, Georgia, to Savannah. He was honorably discharged in November, 1865, at Augusta, Georgia. After the war he went to Mississippi for the purpose of locating there, but found the South still " too hot " for him politically. In 1866 he went to Hancock County, Illinois, where he engaged in farming and stock-raising. In 1872 he came to Iowa and located in Fremont County, six miles south of Shenandoah, Page County; there he remained one year, and then came to Page County and purchased his present farm, which was wild land; he first secured 120 acres, and then added as much more: the farm now contains 300 acres in a body, is situate one mile south of Coin, and named Hazer Grove Stock Farm. It is a very valuable tract, and is especially adapted by nature to the raising of live stock, being watered by the East Tarkio. The buildings are of a substantial kind; the residence is beautifully located on a natural building site and is surrounded with shade and ornamental trees.
Captain Palmer is largely interested in dairying; he keeps some of the Holstein grades, and has in all thirty cows. At the time of the organization of the Blanchard Creamery Company he was one of the prime movers, and was on the committee to investigate the various plans and methods of conducting such an establishment. Politically he is a radical Republican. He is a member of Page Post, No. 65, G. A. R., at Coin; he was a charter member and its first command- [page 487] er. He and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Coin, and he is one of the trustees and steward.
Captain Palmer was united in marriage February, 1860, to Miss Martha Schoonmaker, a native of Ulster County, New York, and a daughter of Joshua Schoonmaker of an old Huguenot family. Eight children were born of this marriage: Mary J., wife of Oliver Ernst, Georgia A., Ella, Carrie R. and Hayes; there are three deceased: Harvey, who was killed by an accident at the age of nine years; Garfield, who died at the age of six years, and Joseph, who died at the age of four years.
During his residence in Page County Captain Palmer has made many friends, and is now counted among the most enterprising farmers and business men of his community.


WILLIAM OSBORN, son of Thomas A. Osborn, a native of Winchester, Virginia, was born near McConellsville, Morgan County, Ohio, January 6,1825; came to Lee County, Iowa, in the spring of 1853: was married to Miss Carolina Mead in Clark County, Missouri, March 27,1856, and removed to southwestern Iowa; in April following settled in Page County, Valley Township, on the north part of section 36, where he had purchased land previously, on which to make a farm, and he still resides on the same farm. The family of children consists of three daughters: Corie, Almena and Lorena.


HON. CHARLES LINDERMAN.—Pioneers are born, not made. Not every man or woman has the sterling qualities and attributes to be a successful pioneer. Not every natiqn can produce them.   The colonizing germ is not found with every race. The Anglo-Saxon race is a pre-eminently pioneer one. Its glory has ever been to plant colonies and found states, ordain governments, and extend the domain of Christian civilization. The dreamer, the idler, the doubter are left behind. The selfish, the greedy, the miserly wait until the opening is made and the bridges are built. But the true pioneer turns his face toward the setting sun. He is courageous without vanity; a conqueror without pomp or parade. He pushes his way through trackless forests, he fords the great rivers, and climbs the lofty mountains. The environments of the pioneer have produced a new type of manhood with a humanity broad enough, for universal brotherhood. His life has been too busy and too earnest for him to tell of himself. He makes history but leaves others to write it. He helps to organize society and forms constitutions. He sets up and puts in operation all the complicated machinery of modern civilization, and steps aside, leaving others to enter into the details and routine of complete administration.
All that has been said will apply to Charles Linderman, a biographical sketch of whom will be a valuable addition to those collected of the early settlers of Page County. He was born near Bloomingburg, Orange County, New York, February 4, 1829, and is a son of Absalom and Sarah (McLaughlin) Linderman. The father was born in 1782, and the grandfather came from Germany and settled in the State of New York when he was a pioneer there. Sarah McLaughlin was a daughter of Robert McLaughlin, of Irish extraction, and a farmer by occupation; he was a soldier in the war of 1812.
Charles Linderman is the ninth of a family of eleven children, six of whom are living; one brother resides in Colorado, and the others, excepting our subject, live near the old home-[page 488] stead in New York. He received his early education in the common schools and in the Academy at Bloomingburg; in 1851 he entered Hamilton College, Clinton, New York, from which institution he was graduated in 1854. The following year he spent in teaching at Seneca Falls, New York. In the autumn of 1855 he was convinced that the great, undeveloped West was his best field from which to reap life's harvest. So he came to Scott County, Iowa, where he engaged in teaching for one winter. In the spring of 1856 he removed to Nebraska Territory, and that season assisted the Government surveyors in establishing the Sixth Principal Meridian. In November of the same year helocated at Sidney, Fremont County, Iowa, where he remained until the spring of 1859, during which period he was engaged in teaching school and serving as deputy clerk of Fremont County.
In April, 1859, he arrived in Page County, where he engaged in the practice of law for a few months. The following fall he was appointed clerk of Page County, and in the autumn of 1860 he was elected by the people to the same office to which he had been appointed. He made an excellent official, as the court records will show, and as another proof of his ability he was re-elected to the office in 1862. Even at so early a day the people of Page County knew the value of a first-class official as found in the person of Mr. Linderman.
But before he had completed his last term of office the great civil war cloud had spread its pall over this fair land. In August, 1863, he resigned his office and at once enlisted as a private in the Union army, becoming a member of Company A, Eighth Iowa Cavalry. He was elected Second-Lieutenant of his company, and was mustered into active service at Davenport, Iowa. The regiment was at once sent forward to Louisville, Kentucky, from which point they marched to Nashville, Tennessee. Having headquarters at Waverly, Tennessee, they guarded the railways between Nashville and Johnstown along the Tennessee River during that winter. Mr. Linderman was detailed to do provost-marshal duty, and in the spring of 1864 served as Acting Quartermaster. A greater portion of his time spent in the army was in filling positions of trust and responsibility, such as but few are fitted to fill. He was mustered out of the service at Clinton, Iowa, in September, 1865. He at once returned to Clarinda and was elected that autumn a member of the Eleventh General Assembly of Iowa, being a Representative in the House. Here, as in all other positions, he was efficient, and drew to himself many friends. But as true merit always wins, we find Mr. Linderman in the fall of 1866 elected Clerk of the Supreme Court of Iowa. He was re-elected in 1870, serving in all eight years. January 1,1875, he returned to Clarinda and purchased an interest in the'First National Bank, which is now known as the Page County Bank, and with which he is still associated as a large stockholder and as an official.
Mr. Linderman was united in marriage November 7, 1877, to Mrs. S. E. Conine, whose maiden name was Powers. She is the daughter of the late J. H. Powers, one of Page County's early pioneers. By this union one child was born—Ina L.
Our worthy subject is a member of the Masonic fraternity, having passed all the chairs of the blue lodge, chapter and commandery. He also belongs to the I. O. O. F., the Knights of Pythias, and the G. A. R. Politically he is a firm believer in the principles of the Republican party, with which he has voted and labored in various capacities from the Fremont campaign of 1856 to the election of Benjamin Harrison. [page 489]

In his manner Mr. Linderman is plain, retiring and unassuming. He is thoroughly-practical in all his ways and methods, and has been foremost in all the public enterprises both in Clarinda and Page County. The true estimate of a man's character is the public opinion entertained of him in his own community, and by this never failing index the reader may know our subject to be a refined and cultivated gentleman, whose political, social and business life has been of the highest type.


CHARLES C. MOORE is one of the prominent early settlers in Page County, having located here in 1869. He is a native of the beautiful " Emerald Isle," born in county Monaghan, July 8, 1832, his parents being John and Jane (Ross) Moore. When he was fourteen years old the family bide farewell to their native land and sailed to America, locating at Galena, Illinois, which at that time was noted for its vast lead deposit; the parents remained there the rest of their days.
Mr. Moore was united in marriage March 5, 1857, to Miss Mary Gray, a daughter of James and Maria (Long) Gray, natives of Ireland. She was born in Jo Daviess County, Illinois, where her parents were among the prominent pioneers. Mr. and Mrs. Moore are the parents of twelve living children: John, James G., Alice, Anna Belle, George W., Josiah, Fenwick, Charles Augustus, William E., Ross, Minnie A. and Harry E. Three are not living: Walter, Raymond and Lulu.
In February, 1865, our subject enlisted in the Ninety-sixth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and served to the close of the war; one brother, Josiah, died in the service, and three other brothers were also in the war,—George W., Thomas and Samuel. After the glad message of peace had been proclaimed, Mr. Moore returned to his home and engaged in farming until he came to Iowa; he bought 160 acres of wild land in Douglas Township where he has since resided; he has added to the original purchase until he owns 210 acres of as fine land as lies in Page County. He is surrounded with all the conveniences and comforts of life; he has a comfortable dwelling, and excellent buildings for stock and grain; has a good grove, an orchard, a modern windmill, and carries on his farming in the most appoved manner.
Politically he is a Republican Prohibitionist, and has been called by the people of his township to serve as trustee and as a member of the school board. He and his wife are active members of the United Presbyterian Church, of which he was one of theorganizers; he also served as trustee of the church for many years.


WILLIAM RUSH, a resident of Douglas Township, will form the subject of this sketch. He came to Page County twenty years ago and purchased 160 acres in section 36, on which he located in February, 1870. He is a native of Morrow County, Ohio, born October 29, 1836, and is a son of William and Abbie (Brewer) Rush, Pennsylvanians by birth. They were married in the State in which they were born, and in 1821 removed to Morrow County, Ohio, where they were counted early settlers; they were the second family to locate in Congress Township of that county, only one tree having been cut before their arrival there. William Rush, Sr., served in the war of 1812, and received a land warrant with which he [page 490] located lands. He died in 1871, at the advanced age of seventy-nine years, and after his death his widow received a pension of $144 per year during her life-time; she died February 25,1888, at the old Ohio homestead where the had lived and labored over sixty years.
They reared a family of nine children, five sons and four daughters. William, Jr., is the fifth child; he was reared in Morrow County, Ohio, worked on the farm and attended the common schools. In February, 1863, he removed to Illinois, and for two years lived in Henry County; he then removed to Mercer County, Illinois, where he purchased eighty acres of land on which he made his home until 1870.
Mr. Rush was married in Henry County, Illinois, December 14, 1865, to Susan Piper, a native of Franklin County, Pennsylvania, She was the daughter of Daniel and Anna (Barr) Piper, both natives of the old "Keystone " State. She was only seven years of age when her people removed to Henry County in 1857, and in 1869 they came to Page County, where her father and mother lived the remainder of their days. He died in 1874, and she died in 1888.
As before stated, Mr. Rush removed to his land in 1870. There were no improvements excepting a small bit of breaking. In 1873 he erected a good two-story residence, which is now surrounded by a thrifty grove of two and a half acres and an orchard containing four acres; evergreens also adorn and make the place attractive. There is a well-planned barn affording plenty of room for all farm purposes. A fine stock-proof hedge surrounds the place, and the whole farm shows Mr. Rush to be a man of good taste and excellent judgment as well.
Five children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Rush: William B., Effie M., Albert, Roy and Virdie, all of whom are still under the parental roof. The parents are members of the Evangelical Church, and were among the first class organized; they also helped build the church located in Valley Township.
Politically our subject is a Democrat. Although past fifty he bears his years lightly. In manner he is frank, candid and genial, and he is classed among Douglas Township's best men.

HENRY OTTE, one of the true representives of an adopted American citizen, has made his life a success as well as an honor to those around him. He resides on section 34, Douglas Township, where he owns 640 acres of choice land. He is a pioneer, and as such is justly entitled to space in a work recording the lives of Page County's leading men. He came to the county in 1855 and entered 160 acres of land, on which he located in the spring of 1856, when Clarinda had but a dozen houses, and rank prairie grass bedecked the spot now known as the public square.
Henry Otte was born in Hanover, Germany, February 4, 1832, and is the son of George and Caroline (Macher) Otte, who were the parents of eight children, four of whom grew to maturity. Henry is the youngest child, and remained in his native land until he was fifteen years old. He attended school from his sixth year until his fourteenth, and in 1847 he came to America, landing at Quebec. He soon found his way to Jackson County, Indiana, where he spent two years; he then went to Ohio and remained there the same length of time, working on a farm and gardening. He then went back to Jackson County, Indiana, where he was married, April 10, 1856, to Miss Char- [page 491] lotte Klinge, a daughter of Henry and Hannah (Summers) Klinge. She was born in Hanover, Germany, September 18, 1832.
From 1847 to 1856 Mr. Otte was employed on a farm. Shortly after his marriage he and his wife and his brother and family moved to Iowa, being on the road live weeks, camping out at night and doing their cooking. They had to cross many unbridged streams, but they were ferried across the Mississippi; however, the stock had to swim that great river. They settled where they now live, living the first three months in the wagon. Mr. Otte built a house as soon as it was possible; eight men were required to raise it, but in that day were free-hearted and neighborly.
After this cabin home was up the family were happy and comfortable, and it served the purpose until 1875, when their present dwelling was erected. It is a roomy structure and stands upon a natural building site, surrounded by pretty shade and ornamental trees. An orchard also adds beauty and value to the place; the grove and orchard together contain ten acres. Barns, sheds, granaries and stock buildings, with stock scales and a modern wind-mill, make up all the conveniences of farming pursuits. The home farm consists of 360 acres in section 34. There is another tract of 280 acres in section 35, and in addition to this land Mr. Otte owns 360 acres in Nodaway Township, which is well improved, making 1,000 acres in all. It is among the best tracts to be found in Page County, and Mr. Otte is one of the most successful farmers and stock-raisers.
The family consists of nine children: William Sauleka (son of Mrs. Otte by her former husband); Lucinda, wife of Henry Goecker; John, Frank, Malinda, wife of William Hartstack; Harmon, Lottie, wife of John Sundermann; Mary and Caroline. Louisa died October 19, 1889, aged twenty-three years, and Sophia died in infancy. They have all been well educated in the English and German languages, and have the respect of the entire community in which they live.
Politically Mr. Otte is a Republican, casting his vote for Lincoln in 1860. He has often held local offices, and was elected Justice of the Peace, but declined to serve. He is a devout member of the German Lutheran church, and was a trustee when the building was erected. His liberality was practically seen and felt when he subscribed and paid $400 to the church building.
Our subject is a self-made man; having commenced without a dollar, he is now a wealthy man and an honored citizen, whom to know is to respect.


WILLIAM D SUNDERMANN of Douglas Township, was among Page County's early pioneers, and has lived to see what was a wilderness brought to a high state of cultivation. It is to such men that this portion of Iowa is indebted for all that men look upon as grand and valuable both in a financial and social way. Mr. Sundermann is a native of the Hoosier State, having been born in Jackson County, Indiana, July 4, 1844. He is a son of Casper and Charlotte (Goecker) Sundermann, natives of Germany. The parents were united in marriage in their native land, and had had three children born to them before emigrating to America. They were pioneers in the big woods of Jackson County, Indiana, and cleared out a farm from the dense forest, where they spent the remainder of their days. They reared a family of six children, and lost one by death. [page 492] William D. is the fourth child, and his early years were passed on the old farm in Indiana, where he was trained to most excellent habits and received a good common-school education. He had two brothers in Page County, Iowa, and when grown to manhood he naturally drifted that way. He came in 1864, and in 1865 we find him working on the farm of William Butler, at $25 per month. The following year he took a trip through Kansas and Missouri, and in March, 1867, he was back at the old home in Indiana, working amid the familiar scenes of his boyhood.
August 29, 1867, he was united in marriage to Mary Niewedde. She is a native of Jackson County, Indiana, born March 6, 1846, and is a daughter of Henry and Margaret (Stuckenberg) Niewedde, natives of Germany. Her parents removed to Page County in 1877, and in that year her father died; the mother survived him until 1889.
In the fall of 1867 Mr. Sundermann removed to Page County, coming by rail to St. Joseph, Missouri, and the rest of the way by team. The first winter they lived with his brother Frederick, and then for two years on his brother Henry's farm. In the meantime he had begun to improve a farm of 120 acres which he had bought, paying $4 per acre. In 1869 he moved to his present place; it was then very wild in Page County, and wolves were seen and heard everywhere. Mr. Sundermann has stuck to his farm and has added to it as his means increased, until now he owns 360 acres, all in an advanced state of cultivation. His residence is a good, substantial building, located on a charming site, surrounded by a fine grove of five acres. There are also fruit and ornamental shade trees, selected with much taste and care. Among the improvements maybe mentioned the barn, which is 34 x 64 feet, with a stone basement, with posts eighteen feet high, and an addition of ten feet on the south. There is also a wind-mill that pumps an abundance of pure water and also grinds feed. Good improved farms show the character of their owners always. Every bushel of grain produced is fed out on the place.
Mr. and Mrs. Sundermann are the parents of eleven children: Henry, Benjamin, Anna, Helen, Oscar, Malinda, Walter, Wilhelmina, Sarah, Otto and Ida.
Politically Mr. Sundermann is a supporter of the Democratic party. He is a member of the German Lutheran church. In religious and educational matters no man has been more active than he. He is now in the real prime of manhood, and is classed as one of Page County's most reliable citizens. He has served as church trustee, school trustee, and on all the committees of actual work connected with church or school. He is a member of the Farmers' Mutual Insurance Company of this county.


JOHN W. DOUGLAS, of section 20, Nodaway Township, ranks among the representative farmers of Page County, where he has resided since 1871. He was born in Lawrence County, Illinois, August 15, 1844, and is a son of Stockley and Mary Ann (Bullock) Douglas. The father was a native of Kentucky, of Scotch descent, and the mother was born in Crawford County, Indiana, of German ancestry. When John W. was eighteen months old his mother died, and the father was again married, and now resides in Woodhull, Henry County, Illinois.
The youth of Mr. Douglas was not unlike the youth of most farmers' sons; he obtained a common-school education, and assisted on his father's farm.   August 31, 1871, he was [page 493] united in marriage with Emma M. Davis, a successful teacher, who was born in the State of New York, but reared in Illinois. She is the daughter of George and Ada (Keyes) Davis, who emigrated soon after their marriage to this county. A month after marriage Mr. and Mrs. Douglas emigrated to Page County, Iowa, and located near the old Tarkio store; they soon after removed to a point near Villisca, where they remained about four years. In 1877 Mr. Douglas purchased eighty acres of choice land, which had not been placed under cultivation. He has claimed from nature all that she would yield, and now has one of the finest farms in the township; he has planted a fine apple orchard and shrubs and small fruits adorn the lawn surrounding the residence. The buildings are of a most substantial kind, and comfort and plenty are the rule. The farm is well adapted to raising live-stock, as Snake Creek runs through the land supplying an abundance of pure water.
Mr. and Mrs. Douglas are the parents of two children: Ada Margaret, born October 8, 1872, and Winnie Alberta, born May 20, 1878. In his political belief our subject is an adherent to the principles of the Democratic party, but of late years he has affiliated with the Union Labor party.
The Douglas family are acceptable members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, belonging to the Summit class. Mr. Douglas has served as steward trustee. Mrs. Douglas served for several years as assistant superintendent, and teacher for a number of years. The daughter, Ada, is also an efficient teacher in the Sabbath-school.
Mr. Douglas is a man after whom many might well pattern; he is accounted by his neighbors as the truest and best of men, and he and his little family are an honor to any community.   In a work of this kind it is the design to give a true account of the character as well as a family history of Page County's representative men and women,and none will say that the estimate herein recorded is overdrawn.



HENRY HAKES, of whom this biographical sketch is written, is a resident of section 28, Nodaway Township, where he owns a well-improved farm of 400 acres of choice land. He may well be classed among Page County's pioneers as he has lived here since 1857, arriving in July of that year, when all was " one vast, green solitude."
Mr. Hakes was born June 25, 1830, in Onondaga County, New York, and is the son of Nathan Hakes, a native of Albany, New York. Albert Hakes, father of Nathan Hakes, was a native of England and a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Nathan Hakes served in the war of 1812. The mother of Henry Hakes was Margaret Bush, who was born four miles from the city of Albany, New York, at a place named Greenbush. Her parents were of German origin.
Nathan Hakes and wife were the parents of ten children, of whom Henry is the youngest. When he was four years old the family removed to Delaware County, Ohio, where he grew to manhood. His mother died when he was twelve years of age; his father died in Seneca County, Ohio, at the age of seventy-two years.
Henry was reared on a farm, and attended school but three months of his life; but by improving his odd moments at home he has acquired a fair education. At that time Delaware County was new and wild, and the pioneer boyhood led there doubtless en-[page 494]couraged him to face the hardships of pioneer days in Iowa.
He was married November 27, 1852, to Anna Palmer, a native of Richland County, Ohio, and a daughter of William P. Palmer, who was a native of England; her mother was Hannah Rose, and she too was born in England. In 1857 Mr. Hakes started with horses and a wagon for Iowa; he was just a month to a day in making the journey, camping out in good old style. When he landed in the new West he had but 85 cents to call his own. He settled on ten acres of the farm now owned by John Annon, where he built a box house. Five years later he purchased sixty acres of James Reed, which he improved and made his home for two years. He then sold this and bought an improved farm containing thirty acres, which he sold after four years, and removed to his present place; he first bought forty acres of wild land, upon which he built a box house, which is now used as a chicken-house. Here he has lived, and from time to time he has added to his land until today he owns 400 acres of as good land as Iowa affords. The place is well adapted to stock-raising, in which he has been very successful. His present residence was built in 1870, at a cost of $2,200. It stands upon a beautiful site, commanding a wide view of the surrounding country, and is of a pleasing style of modern architecture. The barn is well planned for stock and grain, and from end to end the Hakes farm shows thrift and good management seldom seen in any part of Iowa.
Mr. and Mrs. Hakes have five children: Alice, wife of J. M. Petterman; William, who married Sadie McFarland; Edward; Charles, who married Jessie B. Gorman, and Ida, wife of F. M. Fox. Mr. Hakes, who did not enjoy the educational privileges he desired, has given his children liberal opportunities.
Politically he is independent. He cast his first vote for Salmon P. Chase, " Free Soiler," for Governor of Ohio; he voted for Lincoln twice and for Grant in 1868; in 1876 he supported Peter Cooper for President. In local matters he has been quite active, having served as township trustee for several years with credit to himself and his constituents. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., Clarinda Lodge, No. 109, and also of the Ancient Order of United Workmen.
In an early day Mr. Hakes worked at the plasterer's trade, and became quite an expert. During the "Tippecanoe campaign" he took such an active part that he was nicknamed " Tip," and this name took the place of his real name, Henry, and followed him to Iowa. He is generally known as " Tip" throughout Page County. In his manner he is frank and cordial, and he has lived to be one of Page County's best citizens, ever working for its best interests.


DAVID GIFFORD, one of Page County's enterprising agriculturists, a resident of Nodaway Township, has been a citizen of Page County since 1873. He was born in Cambria County, Pennsylvania, June 16, 1830, and is a son of Joseph Gifford, a native of Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania. The Giffords were of English-German origin. The mother of David Gifford was Sarah Davis, who was born in Hollidaysburg, Pennsylvania.
Our subject is the second of a family of nine children, five sons and four daughters. When he was nine years old his parents removed to Indiana County, Pennsylvania, and thence to other parts of the State. When he was nineteen years of age he was married in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania, to Miss [page 495] Joanna Martis, by whom he had three children. She died in 1854. and he was again married in 1857, in Hancock County, Illinois, to Miss Olive Tull, who died a year later. Mr. Gifford married his present wife in 1859; she was Miss Joanna M. Baily, a daughter of John and Elizabeth (Rank) Baily, natives of Pennsylvania. She was born June 17, 1838, in Marion County, Indiana, and when she was fourteen years old her parents removed to Hancock County, Illinois, where she grew to womanhood. Mr. and Mrs. Gifford have two children living: Martha Jane, wife of William Gordon, of Clarinda, and Ida L., wife of John W. Strickler, of Page County. Two children have died: Elizabeth Ellen, aged six years, and Mary Frances Shearer, wife of Jonathan E. Shearer.
In 1873 Mr. Gifford came to Page County and purchased his present farm of eighty acres, where he has made a comfortable home. Politically he is a Republican, believing that the policy of that party is best suited to the needs of the masses. Mr. Gifford and his wife are both acceptable and active members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he is class-leader and trustee. Although having reached three-score years Mr. Gifford is hale and hearty, and bids fair to live out the allotted time of man. He is frank and candid, and he and his estimable wife are truly representative types of Page County's best people, industrious, temperate, and thoroughly upright.

ABRAHAM PFANDER is truly a pioneer of Page County, and rightfully belongs in a work of this character. It was he who made his way through the long and tangled grass of the wild and uninhabited prairie to the tract of land on which now stands the flourishing town of Clarinda. He came at a time so early that none were before him except Judge Snyder, " sole, presiding potentate" in Clarinda.
Mr. Pfander's birthplace was among the hills of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, where he first saw the light of day, September 24, 1832. His father was Charles Pfander, a native of Germany, and his mother was Catherine Hithbarger. The parents emigrated to America and settled in Pennsylvania, and later removed to Ohio, when Abraham was three years of age. The father was a wagon and carriage maker by trade, but as his family grew older he invested in land, and trained his sons to agricultural pursuits. Five of the children grew to maturity. The mother died when Abraham was ten years old, and the father in 1853.
When Mr. Pfander had attained his majority he was united in marriage, in Darke County, Ohio, March 23,1854, to Miss Elizabeth Ann Colvill, who was born in Darke County, Ohio, March 18, 1835, and is a daughter of Charles and Sarah (Hort) Colvill. After their marriage they came down the Ohio, up the Mississippi River to St. Louis, and thence to St. Joe, Missouri, in company with Tilman Nealeigh and family, and Levi Nealeigh. Mr. Pfander bought a yoke of oxen and a wagon, and by this mode of transportation they journeyed to Page County, Iowa. He settled about one mile west of Clarinda, where he built a log house on a tract of forty acres which he had purchased; his rude cabin was after the good old style,—clapboard roof, puncheon floor and two glass windows. Here he lived for two years and then sold for $6 per acre, and pre-empted 160 acres, on which he now resides. This land has been developed year after year, until it is transformed into one of the best farms of the county. There is a comfortable residence, and substantial [page 496] barns for stock and grain have been erected; a superb orchard of several hundred bearing trees adds very much to the value of the place. The owner does not confine himself to any one branch of farming, but deals largely in livestock, in addition to cultivating his lands.
Mr. and Mrs. Pfander are the parents of five children: Joseph, who lives on an eighty-acre farm adjoining his father's place; Charles Franklin, who lives on eighty acres adjoining his brother Joseph; Sarah Ellen, wife of Stacy Doughit; William Henry, who owns eighty acres near his brothers' farms, and Phebe Catharine, who died November 27,1883, aged fifteen years.
Mr. Pfander votes the Union Labor ticket, believing that the principles of that party will ultimately be of greatest benefit to the masses of citizens. He is a member of the Christian Church, while his wife and son Joseph belong to the United Presbyterian Church. He has been a liberal patron of all religious and educational affairs. Although fifty-seven years of age he is active and full of energy, such as many a younger man might covet. Mrs. Pfander belongs to the Christian Church, and William Henry and wife are members of the United Brethren Church.

WILLIAM DUNN has been prominently identified with the interests of Page County since 1868. He was born in Belmont County, Ohio, December 30, 1826, and is a son of Arthur and Sabina (Mitchell) Dunn. The father was one of the pioneer settlers and successful farmers of Belmont County. There were nine children in the family of Arthur and Sabina Dunn: Samuel, who was killed at a barn raising by one of the timbers falling upon him; Elisha, who died in the war; Jeremiah, a twin brother of Elisha; Arthur M.; Mary, wife of Jacob Wise; Anne Elizabeth, wife of Hiram Hanes; Martha J., widow of Edward Day; James Henry, and William, the subject of this notice.
Mr. Dunn was married August 7, 1852, to Miss Harriet Kean, a daughter of John and Patience (Jeffries) Kean: she was born June 27, 1833. After his marriage Mr. Dunn bought an improved farm in Ohio, and lived on it for sixteen years. In 1868, when the spirit of western emigration swept over the eastern part of the United States, he removed to Page County, Iowa, where he has since resided. He and his wife had eight children born to them: Mary Amanda, wife of Samuel Dunn; Martha Louisa, wife of Samuel Wallet; Patience Sabina, wife of John Saunders; Rebecca, wife of Benjamin Kendall, and Maria Ellen, Hattie, Arthur and John W. at home.
The Dunn farm is well improved, having good fencing, an orchard of bearing trees, barns for stock and grain, and a comfortable dwelling; there is a standing spring on the lower part of the farm which never fails, and there is a grove of ten acres.
The father lived happily with his wife for thirty-seven years, when a sad misfortune befell him: the beloved wife and mother was called from this life July 5, 1889, after a lingering illness of four years.
May 2, 1864, William Dunn enlisted in the Home Guards as a hundred-day man, and participated in the battle of Monocacy Junction, Maryland. He was honorably discharged September 4, 1864, at Columbus, Ohio, returning immediately to his home. Politically he adheres to the principles of the Republican party, and has been called to fill the office of township trustee, the duties of which he will faithfully perform. He is a man of good judgment and excellent business quali-[page 497] fications, and has won a place among the first citizens of the County.


ISAAC VAN ARSDOL, a Page County pioneer and one of the honored citizens of Clarinda, is the subject of this notice. It would require volumes to contain the actual record of the events of a man's life who had attained the age of this worthy gentleman; but for the purpose of handing down to generations yet unborn some of the more important events connected with his career, especially as an early settler of Page County, the following sketch will suffice. There are but few of the early pioneers left. Time's hand has dealt gently with a small portion? while the majority have passed away, leaving a younger class of men to fill their places, who know but little of the self-sacrifice and real hardships endured by those who effected a settlement when this portion of Iowa's wild domain was considered the western frontier. It was but ten years prior to Mr. Van Arsdol's coming that the Indian tribes made this their happy hunting grounds, and camped by the clear streams known as the Nodaway and Tarkio.
Mr. Van Arsdol was born August 3, 1820, in Delaware County, Indiana, and was the first white child to see the light of day in that county. He is a son of Cornelius and Jane (McClellan) Van Arsdol, natives of Ohio and Pennsylvania respectively; the father served in the war of 1812; the paternal grandfather came from Holland, while the maternal ancestors were from Scotland.
Cornelius Van Arsdol and his wife were married in Cincinnati, Ohio, and in the spring of 1820 they removed to Delaware County, Indiana, and settled on the White River in a heavily timbered section. There they spent the remainder of their days. The father lived to be eighty-five years old and the mother died at the extreme old age of ninety-seven years. They reared ten children, of whom Isaac is the sixth; his youth was spent on the farm and in attending the common schools of that day, which were not of the present type by any means; a portion of the time it was necessary to walk five miles to obtain even these limited advantages. In connection with his agricultural pursuits he worked at the blacksmith's trade. He was married November 18, 1844, to Miss Margaret Ribble. She was born in Mont­gomery County, Yirginia, March 19, 1822, and is a daughter of the late George Ribble, also a native of Yirginia. George Ribble's father was a physician of much prominence in Germany and lived to be fully a hundred years old. George Ribble married Sarah Surface, who was born and reared in Virginia. Mrs. Van Arsdol was eight years old when her parents removed to Delaware County, Indiana. In 1855 her father, so well and favorably known in Page County, came to Iowa and located at Clarinda, where he died February 27, 1888, in his ninety-second year. His wife died in 1879 at the age of eighty-four years. This worthy couple reared ten children, two sons and eight daughters.
Mr. Van Arsdol remained in Delaware County, Indiana, until the fall of 1853, when he moved with teams and wagons to Iowa, stopping for a short time in Polk County. He arrived at the point where Clarinda now stands April 7, 1854. He purchased the claim held by Israel Hulbert, which he had claimed from the Government in 1853. There was a box house on the place which had been moved from the village, platted a few months before. He bought in all 500 acres of land and erected a log cabin. The family remained for a time near the [page 498] present site of Villisca. During all these years he has made but two moves, from the old log cabin to a frame house 18x30 feet, erected in October, 1854, then looked upon as a fancy domicile, and from that to his present dwelling, built in the summer of 1868, at a cost of $4,000. The surroundings are very attractive and indicate much care and no little taste for comfort and beauty. The present farm contains 200 acres of well improved land, 300 of the original tract having been sold.
Mr. and Mrs. Van Arsdol are the parents of five children: Mary, widow of W. W. Woods; Luther, a banker at Coin, Iowa; Cassius, a civil engineer in the employ of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company; George, and Sally, wife of Robert Burrell.
Politically Mr. Van Arsdol is a firm believer in the principles of the Republican party. The family were members of the old Whig party and became identified with the Republicans as soon as that party was organized. In religious faith the Van Arsdol family are Methodists, Isaac Van Arsdol having been a member of this church for thirty-six years, during which period he has been class-leader and member of the official board. His father was a minister in the Christian Church. His old log cabin was a sort of headquarters for religious gatherings both of the Methodist and other denominations.
Although our subject has been a great worker and has already seen his " three score aud ten " years, yet he is still a well preserved man, capable of enjoying the fruits of his labors, knowing as he certainly must that he has done his share toward the development of Page County. He has the satisfaction of a well-spent life, ever having thrown his influence on the side of right and justice. He has seen great changes in this part of Iowa since that April day in 1854 when he landed here. He helped to fashion and make the first sod-breaking plow drawn by a horse team in Page County. Before his experiment it was deemed impossible to turn the sod of the prairie with anything else than the old-fashioned ox team; but with this new plow three horses turned a clear cut furrow, and the idea at once revolutionized prairie breaking in this section.
To meet this true-hearted pioneer and listen to his recital of the struggles of those early days is indeed of great interest. He may well be proud of Page County and of the family he has reared and educated; and on the other hand the people of Page County may well present the entire Van Arsdol family as a model type of Page County's early settlers.


RALPH H. DELAP, a resident of Nodaway Township, is among Page County's early settlers. He is a native of Tennessee, born July 28,1842, at Big Creek Gap, in Campbell County, and is a son of George and Phebe (Cabage) Delap. The Delap family were of French origin, and the mother's people were of German extraction. The family came to Page County by team in 1855, and located on land which is now embraced in Nodaway Township. They remained one winter, which was a severe one, and went back to the sunny South the following spring. The father died in Tennessee March 18,1877, and the mother still resides in that State.
In 1863 Ralph H. returned to Page County and remained one winter, returning to the South. He continued to live in Tennessee until December, 1865, when he permanently located on his farm in this county. December 12, 1869, he was united in marriage to Ma-[page 499] hala Ingram, a daughter of Silas Ingram, a pioneer of Page County. Mrs. Delap was born in Campbell County, Tennessee, and was but five years of age when her parents came to Page County, where she has since made her home.
Mr. Delap has a finely improved farm of 280 acres, 100 acres of which is excellent timber land. His buildings for stock and all his surroundings indicate the thrift and wise management of the owner. In politics he is a Democrat of the life-long stripe, and he was a loyal man during the dark days of the Rebellion. He is now in the prime of life, and is possessed of a frankness and candor which win him hosts of friends. He has traveled extensively, is a constant reader, and is thoroughly posted concerning the principal events of the last third of a century.


ELMER G. GUILD, Postmaster at Hawleyville, Iowa, was born April 3, 1860, and is a son of L. W. and Orissa (Easton) Guild, natives of Ohio. His father was a harness-maker in Dover, Ohio, and also operated a farm near that place. Elmer O. is one of a family of six children, two of whom were half sisters, his father having been twice married: Fayette resides in Bedford, Ohio; Helen is the wife of W. H. Tibbles; Alvin W. resides in Hepburn, Iowa; Emma and Stella Orissa are deceased.
The subject of this sketch received a common-school education and assisted in his father's shop till he was twenty-one years of age, when he hired to work on a farm three miles north of Columbus, Ohio; he remained there nine months and then went to work in a brass foundry in Lorain, Ohio; after eleven months he went to Villisca, Iowa, and accepted a position as clerk in his brother's furniture store. At the end of one year he went to work in a harness shop at Villisca, Iowa, but did not continue longer than six months; he then went to work on a farm, and in a few months he came to Hawleyville and entered his brother's general store as clerk, holding this position for two years.
Mr. Guild was united in marriage March 11, 1884, to Miss Ida McAlpine, a daughter of Stephen and Sarah (East) McAlpine, natives of Indiana. Mrs. Guild was born in Hawleyville, June 5, 1869. One child has been born of this union, Clyde, an interesting child one year of age on the twenty-eighth day of May, 1890.
After resigning his clerkship Mr. Guild teamed in Omaha and Missouri for one year, after which he opened a grocery and hardware store in Hawleyville, in which business he is successfully engaged at the present time. He was appointed Postmaster at Hawleyville, December 29,1888; he is a member of the Republican party, and the administration being Democratic is evidence of his popularity in the community. He owns a two-story building, carrying on his business on the first floor and using the second floor as a dwelling. He is still a young man in the prime of life, with a promising future before him, and owing to his genial manners and upright dealing he enjoys the confidence of the entire community.

MARY E. SPAULDING, a resident of Nebraska Township, Page County, was born August 28,1842, in Shelby County, Indiana, and is a daughter of William and Esther (Copeland) Jackson, natives of Ohio and Indiana respectively. She was reared and educated in her native State, and at the age of seventeen years she moved with [page 500] her parents to Page County, Iowa, arriving at their new home October 22, 1860, and March 10, 1861, she was married to Alfred Madden, also a former resident of Indiana. Mr. Madden was born near Columbus, Indiana, December 10, 1837. After their marriage they settled on a farm in Taylor County, and there resided until August, 1862, when he enlisted in Company F, Twenty-ninth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and was in several skirmishes, but no hard battles. He was taken sick with camp fever soon after his regiment was sent south and he was taken to the hospital in Helena, Arkansas, lingering there for three long months, when death came to his relief July 26, 1863. He left many warm friends among his comrades, who mourned his death with his widow. Politically he affiliated with the Democratic party.
Upon the death of her husband Mrs. Madden took her young son, W. E., and returned to the home of her parents; there she lived until October 26,1866, when she was married to E. J. Spaulding, a native of Tompkins County, New York, born February 10, 1836. He attended the common schools until his twentieth year, when he went to Illinois, where he remained two years; he then went to Page County, Jowa, and bought forty acres of land adjoining Hawleyville, to which he soon added forty acres more; he made this his home for four years, but after his marriage to Mrs. Madden, he sold this place and bought another near by, in. the same county, contain­ing 205 acres, and also 215 acres in Taylor County; later on he purchased 160 acres in Dallas Township, also forty acres in Montgomery County, adjoining Villisca, the county seat, and a two-story frame store in Hawleyville, stocking it with general merchandise. By his second marriage two children were born; Charles H. and Mary E. Politically Mr. Spaulding adhered to the Republican party; he was Postmaster at Hawleyville for four years, and served as school director and Treasurer, and also as Supervisor, in connection with managing his large store in Hawleyville.
September 19,1887, the family were greatly bereaved by the death of Mr. Spaulding, He was a kind and indulgent husband and father and was a wise and careful business man, highly esteemed by all who knew him. Since the death of her husband Mrs. Spaulding has managed the farm with the assistance of her two younger children, and has been very successful; she is a woman of rare good judgment, and has proven herself capable of discharging all the duties that have been placed to her lot. She lives a quiet, contented life with her children, and enjoys the respect of all who know her.


HIRAM V. HATFIELD, one of the successful farmers in Nebraska Township, was born on a farm in Henry County, Iowa, April 19, 1859, and is the son of John M. and Martha (Jay) Hatfield natives of Indiana. In the spring of 1864 the family met with a great misfortune in the death of the mother; they were then residing in Taylor County, Iowa, whither they had removed from Henry County, Iowa. After his mother's death Hiram was taken into the family of J. H. Liggett, with whom he made his home for eighteen years, and with whom he moved to Page County in the spring of 1866. During his youth he was given an opportunity of attending the common schools, and in the vacations he assisted in the farm work. In the winter of 1879 he began teaching school, following the profession for some time, and being very successful.
On Christmas day, 1880, an event of [page 501] much importance to Mr. Hatfield occurred: Mr. Liggett presented him with a tract of eighty acres of improved land, as evidence of his affection for him. It was indeed a munificent gift, and one fully appreciated by the recipient. Mr. Hatfield devoted his time to the cultivation of his land and to his profession until the summer of 1884, when he abandoned teaching. June 22, 1884, he was united in marriage to Miss Rhoda W. Hunter, a daughter of G. C. and Eliza (Douglass) Hunter; she was born in Campbell County, Tennessee, January 18, 1864, and died January 11,1890. Four children have been born of this union: Elmo L., Guy H., Roy Douglass and Nellie L.
Mr. Hatfield is a stanch Republican, and has served his township as Assessor, and is one of the present justices of the peace. He is a member of the K. P., Newmarket Lodge, No. 126, in which he takes an active interest. He has spent much of his time in the improvement of his farm, and has put it in first-class condition. He has a neat, comfortable home, and has every prospect of a successful and happy life. He is of an unassuming and gentlemanly nature, and has many warm friends in the community.


DAVID MORGAN was born October 2, 1836, in Dubois County, Indiana, and is a son of S G. and Elizabeth (Ballard) Morgan, natives of North Carolina and Tennessee respectively. Until he was sixteen years old his time was divided between the subscription school and farm work. The first journey he made on leaving home was to Kentucky; he obtained work on a farm near Hawleyville and remained there seven months. In the fall of 1854, the spirit of unrest being within him still, he pushed on to the western part of Iowa, and the following spring he entered a wagon shop in Hawleyville as apprentice; for two years he followed this line of work, and then went to work at the carpenter's trade, which he continued until the breaking out of the war. He was not long in responding to the call for men, enlisting in Company K, Twenty-fifth Missouri Volunteer Infantry, December 1, 1861; the most noted battle in which he took part was Pittsburgh Landing; he was with General Sherman on his immortal march to the sea, and was present at the battle of Jonesborough, but was not called into active service, being on the reserve force. He was on Sherman's pontoon bridge force, and on one occasion assisted in putting in six pontoon boats sixteen feet long and four feet wide under continuous fire of the rebels; none of the force suffered any injury, which was a very remarkable escape. February 4, 1864, his regiment was consolidated with the Engineer Regiment of the West, at Nashville, Tennessee, after which it was called the First Missouri Engineers. Mr. Morgan was appointed Sergeant of his company in June, 1863, which position he retained until he was discharged. On the march from Atlanta to Savannah, he had charge of a pioneer squad of twenty-seven citizens, attached to the Fifteenth Army Corps. He was honorably discharged December 20, 1864, and at once returned to his home by way of New York. Although he was frequently in the thickest of the fight he was never wounded or taken prisoner.
Mr. Morgan resumed his business of wagon-making, in which he is still engaged. He was married, December 30,1858, to Miss Susan Goodman Winters, a native of Hardin County, Kentucky. Five children have been born of this union: Matilda (deceased), John B., who resides in Washington Territory; Lettie J., Mary and Tillie Maud, residing at [page 502] home. Mary is a teacher by profession, and has been successfully engaged in this work for some time.
The people of Nebraska Township have shown the confidence which they repose in Mr. Morgan by calling him to fill offices of trust and responsibility; for twelve consecutive years he has served as trustee, and he has also been clerk and school director a number of terms. He cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln, and since that time has supported the Republican ticket. He is a member of Warren Post. No. 11, G. A. R.
In, all the duties and responsibilities of life Mr. Morgan has been found faithful and true, and he well deserves the esteem and respect in which he is held by the citizens of Page County.

J. D. LAUGHLIN was born in Pike County, Ohio, October 13, 1847, and is the son of William H. and Selina (Brill) Laughlin, natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio respectively. The paternal ancestors were born in Ireland and Scotland, while the maternal ancestors were Hollanders. There were ten children in the family, of whom J. D. is the third. The father died in May, 1888, aged sixty-nine years; the mother still lives in Pike County, Ohio.
Our subject remained in the county in which he was born until he was sixteen years of age; he received more than the ordinary school privileges, spending two years in the Holbrook Normal College. Lebanon, Ohio. When he was just past sixteen years old he enlisted in Company G, Ninety-first Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and served until the close of the war. He was discharged at Frederick City, Maryland, July, 1865. He was wounded slightly at the battle of Stevenson Station, which disabled him from active service for two months; he was again wounded in the valley of the Shenandoah. He participated in twenty-two engagements and seventeen actual battles. In February, 1865, he was sent to the hospital on account of ill-health, and remained there until his discharge in July of that year. After the declaration of peace he returned to his home in Pike County, Ohio, where he lived until 1869. He then removed to Champaign County, Illinois, and for three years made it his home; he then removed to Lebanon, Ohio, and again entered school, pursuing his studies until the fall of 1873. He then engaged in teaching in Pike County until 1874, when he returned to Champaign County, Illinois, remaining there but a short time before he removed to Vermilion County, Illinois. He located in Danville, where he was foreman of the car-works, under the master car-builder of the C, D. & V. Railway. He had served an apprenticeship at the carpenter's trade in Pike County, Ohio. He was foreman in the car-shops at Danville until the fall of 1876, when he came to Page County, Iowa.
In 1875, Mr. Laughlin had purchased a farm of 160 acres on section 31, Morton Township, and in the fall of 1876 he erected a residence and began other improvements. He planted two and a half acres as a grove of red cedar, mulberry and willow, and two acres in fruit trees. He has made an additional purchase of eighty acres, lying east of his farm, and devotes the whole to farming and stock-raising. He deals principally in graded stock.
Mr. Laughlin affiliates with the Republican party, and takes an active interest in the issues of the country. He has represented Page County for six years as County Supervisor; he was a member during the erection of the present court-house, and has served his [page 503] constituents faithfully and has their entire confidence. He is a member of the I. O. O. F., Shenandoah Lodge, No. 261.
Mr. Laughlin was united in marriage November 22, 1874, to Martha J. Houser, a daughter of Jonathan and Margaret (Dillman) Houser, who were of German descent. She was born in Clermont County, Ohio, March 8, 1853. Five children have been born of this union: Clio M., Byron B., Osossie M., Effie G. and David E.

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SETH J. CLARK.—This solid and reliable farmer has long been prominently identified with the interests of Page County, his residence there beginning in 1859. He was born in Barre, Worcester County, Massachusetts, September 27, 1840, a son of Erastus and Betsey (Petty) Clark, both New Englanders by birth. They reared a family of seven children: Elizabeth, Horace, Mary, George, Seth, William, and Susan. In 1845 they were caught in the tide of western emigration and removed to Illinois; for two years they resided in Du Page County, and at the expiration of that period they went to De Kalb County, where they remained until 1859. In that year they came to Page County, Iowa, where the father and mother passed the remainder of their days, the former dying at the age of eighty years, and the latter at the age of seventy-three.
Seth J. was engaged in freighting across the plains from St. Joseph to Leavenworth, Kansas, and also to Denver, in the employ of the United States Government, carrying supplies to western posts. His freight bills at one time amounted to $20,000, when he had in his employ 350 men putting up hay for Government use in Colorado and Kansas. This occupation afforded him a varied experience, quickening his faculties of observation and enabling him to read accurately the characters of men.
During the years 1866 and 1868, the subject, while engaged freighting across the then known great American desert, had numerous conflicts with the tribes of Indians then roaming through that country. There is no doubt that the cool head and mind of Mr. Clark not only saved his own scalp but that of a number of persons and families who were traversing these great plains. On the 8th of September, 1866, he was attacked by about seventy-five Indians near Fort Phil. Kearney, on Pine Creek, in Montana. While protected by only three rocks, between which he stood in open fire for nearly an hour, the fire was rapidly returned by Mr. Clark, and after the death of a redskin and the wounding of others, he stole away from them to camp, a distance of about one and a half miles, not receiving a scratch. In many other instances he displayed great bravery, made successful repulses and attacks upou and with the Indians, but never received a wound from their bloody hands.
In the autumn of 1869 he returned to Page County and embarked in the stock business; he made a specialty of raising horses for driving purposes, and also bought and sold horses. He has 766 1/2 acres of land, which has come to be one of the most desirable farms in southwestern Iowa; it consists of prairie and timber land and is well improved in every respect.
Mr. Clark was united in the holy bonds of marriage, in Page County, in 1879, to Miss Martha Ella Carpenter.   By this union four children have been born: Ira Walter, Wilbur Henry, Bertie Seth and Myrtie.
In this free land, where every man must have some political creed whereby his action may be governed, our subject has chosen the [page 504] Republican party as best representing his ideas on the great issues of the day. He is a m^n of more than ordinary intelligence, is well informed on the topics of the day, and is in every way capable of performing his duty as a free, American-born citizen. He may justly be considered one of the leading men of Page County.

WILLIAM D. LEDINGHAM.—Probably the history of no other event in the annals of America is more densely crowded with scenes of suffering, sadness, misery and woe than one in which the subject of this notice bore no inconsiderable part. The march of the Mormon emigrants in the fall of 1856 from Iowa City to Salt Lake has no parallel in the exposure, disaster and death that weak women and young children were compelled to endure. The subject of this article experienced the depth of misery that accompanied that expedition, and it is worthy of interest to enter somewhat into detail in giving a brief review of his life.
William D. Ledingham was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, September 13, 1826. His parents were Alexander and Mary (Moriss) Ledingham, both, of whom were of Scotch ancestry. They came to America and located in Kansas City, where they passed the remainder of their days.
When William was fourteen years old the family settled in Lith, Scotland, and after spending two years there he went to Sunderland, England, and bound himself as an apprentice on board a ship, being determined to become a sailor. He was on the ocean six years, the first four in the capacity of an apprentice, and the remaining two as a common sailor before the mast. Tiring of the sea, he returned to Lith, where his family were still residing, and there served an apprenticeship of three years as a sail-maker, following the business afterwards for five years.
In his twenty-third year Mr. Ledingham was united in marriage to Miss Catherine McKey. Having accumulated some property and having extra inducements offered him, he shipped as sail-maker on a trading vessel going to Australia under a three years contract. The port of Melbourne was made in 133 days, after severe weather. On this voyage the vessel was saved from foundering through his efforts. Not being justly treated by the officers, he resolved to quit the ship, but to decide tossed "heads or tails;" "heads won," and he thereupon started for the gold mines eighty miles distant. These he reached after an exciting encounter with a band of cut-throats, and after many discouragements found employment as a tent-maker. Being an excellent workman, he was soon made overseer by his employer, but after nine months he decided to return to Scotland. He made the voyage in a packet, and after nineteen months of separation joined his wife and children.
Mr. Ledingham had become a convert to the Mormon faith, missionaries from that church having been teaching in Scotland. On his return he found that an emigration society was forming, and that every man who was able was expected to pay his own expenses, and assist others if possible, to get to the "promised land," which was represented as "flowing with milk and honey," where money would not be needed. The picture was drawn in such vivid colorings that Mr. Ledingham and wife decided to come to the new El Dorado. In May, 1856, he and his wife and four children, in company with 560 others, left Liverpool, England, full of bright expectations and vivacity. The voyage was without special incident, and they landed at [page 505] Castle Garden, New York. There the first disappointment met them when they were required to reduce the seventy pounds of baggage to fifty pounds. Iowa City was the terminus of the railroad at that time, and there a large camp was formed, preparatory to the continuance of the journey. It was at this place that they suffered the loss of their little daughter Mary. No arrangement had been made for teams and wagons, but the emigration society supplied common hand­carts, upon which baggage and provisions were to be transported. Five of these were allowed to each 100 persons. Tents which Mr. Ledingham made were furnished, and soon after the 4th of July the long march began. A month was required to reach Omaha, and there a rest of a few days was made, and then they were soon beyond all signs of civilization, and the awfulness of the solitude and the dangers of the journey began to dawn upon them. Some trouble was experienced from the Indians, but Mr. Ledingham, who was made Captain of the Guard, prevented a surprise, and by using some strategy an attack was warded off. The suffering from actual hunger began at an early stage of the march, provisions being entirely inadequate. They were put on short rations and soon were attacked by disease, which was soon after followed by death, and for nearly two months the misery grew worse and language fails to describe the suffering and torment. This company was followed two weeks later by another, and of the 1,000 persons who composed the two companies at the start, 300 to 400 died.
Mr. Ledingham succeeded in getting the remaining members of his family to their destination, and settled at Provo City, fifty miles south of Salt Lake City. There he remained until May, 1860, when he took his family in a wagon, with two yoke of oxen, and joined a company of United States soldiers, with whom he returned to a more civilized country. Upon reaching St. Joseph, Missouri, he was undecided where to go, and allowed the oxen to choose their own road. It happened to lead to the northeast, and he soon found himself in Iowa, and stopped for the winter on Grand River. The Mormons at Mormontown hearing of him invited him to remain with them, which he did until his wife died in 1861. He found homes for his children, and went to St. Louis, where he was in the Government employ as tent-maker until 1865. He then came to Manti, where his children were, and soon decided to remain and engage in farming.
Ten years since he removed to Shenandoah and was in the grain business for some time. He is now conducting a grocery and restaurant, and the profits from this business and the proceeds from investments make him a comfortable living. As has been said, his wife, after passing through the terrible ordeal of that memorable migration, braving the suffering of a four years existence in Utah, was separated from her family by death. Six children are still living: Alexander, William, Robert and John are in the West; Lucy Jennette is the wife of Edward Mitchell, and Catherine McKey married William Moffit.
While in St. Louis Mr. Ledingham was married to Mrs. Hannah Solmer, but after eighteen years they were separated by divorce. His present congenial helpmate was the widow of N. Bennett, who was an extensive farmer and stock-dealer of Shenandoah. No children have been born since Mr. Ledingham's first marriage. He still believes in the principles of the original Mormon church, and is a staunch supporter and earnest advocate of the faith of the Reorganized Church of Latter-Day Saints. Having a natural endowment of Scotch grit and determination, he has never [page 506] faltered when his duty became clear; he probes to the depth of a subject, and with little assistance from schools has made himself a thoroughly well read man, and can present his ideas in rugged, forcible Scotch, with frankuess and precision, as many opponents who have attacked him have found to their entire satisfaction.

DAVID H. SKINNER, Sheriff of Page County, Iowa, was born in Guernsey County, Ohio, in 1851, and is a son of Charles V. and Julia A. (Toombs) Skinner, natives of the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, and descendants of Scotch-Irish ancestors. The parents emigrated to Page County in 1866, and located at College Springs, where they resided until the death of the father, which occurred September 8,1886; the widow is a resident of Clarinda.
Mr. Skinner received his education in the common schools of College Springs. He was married November 7, 1872, to Miss Jennie E. Davis, a native of the old " Keystone " State. He followed agricultural pursuits for some years, but in 1881 he disposed of his farm and removed to Blanchard, Page County, where he resided until 1882. January 1, of that year, he was appointed deputy sheriff under M. C. Johnson, Esq., which position he held until January 1,1886. His services were appreciated to the extent that he was elected Sheriff of Page County in November, 1885, re-elected November, 1887, and again re-elected November, 1889. He is now serving his third term as sheriff, of the county, and has made a record of which any official might well be proud.
Mr. and Mrs. Skinner are the parents of five children:   Minnie Ella, Lillie Lorena, Charles Edward, deceased; Harry Lee, and Mabel, deceased. The parents and the oldest daughter are consistent members of the United Presbyterian Church.
Mr. Skinner is an active member of Clarinda Lodge, No. 139, K. of P. He is a strong advocate of the principles of the Republican party, and enjoys the fullest confidence of that party. At the last election he received the handsome majority of 1,183 votes, a tribute of no mean proportions, and one of which he is in every way worthy.