Biographical History of Page County, Iowa, Lewis & Dunbar Publishers, 113 Adams Street, Chicago, Illinois, 1890

by Pat O'Dell:

[page 568]
JOHN GROELING is one of the most intelligent and successful farmers of Douglas Township, and has been a resident since 1867, with the exception of a few years spent in Nebraska. He was born in Germany, October 22, 1844, and is a son of Christian and Julia Ann (Schmidt) Groeling, also natives of the " Fatherland." When he was eight years old the family emigrated from Germany to America, and settled in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, where they resided four years; at the end of that time they removed to Des Moines County, Iowa, and located near Burlington, where John spent the remainder of his youth. He was trained in the industry of agriculture, and received his education in the common schools.
When the dark war cloud hung threatening over this fair land, and there was a call for brave men to come to her defense, Christian Groeling enlisted in the Twenty-fifth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, Company D, and while in the service he contracted a disease from which he died in Alabama, December 7, 1863. He left a wife and five children, two sons and three daughters: John, the subject of this notice; Herman, Mary, wife of William Otte; Frances, wife of George Bosse; Otilda, wife of Frank Sierp. The mother now receives a pension from the Government.
John was the oldest of the children and upon him fell the burden of the support of [page 569] the younger children, and he did his duty faithfully and well. In 1867, as before stated, he came to Page County, and improved a farm of 200 acres. November 18, 1869, he was married to Miss Catherine Bosse, a native of Jackson County, Indiana, and a daughter of Harmon and Mary (Sitterding) Bosse, natives of Hanover, Germany. Her parents had settled in Jackson County, Indiana, in 1845, and the mother died there in 1860. The father and children came to Page County, and there the father died in 1868.
In 1881 John Groeling removed to Pawnee County, Nebraska, where his wife died, August 12, 1882; she was the mother of five children: Henry, Julia Anna, Rosa, Minnie and Albert. In 1883 the family came back to Page County, Iowa, and settled in Nodaway Township. Some time later Mr, Groeling bought his present farm of J. H. Cramer, which was under cultivation; he has added to this until he now owns 266 acres; he has a good house and barns with many modern conveniences, and a fine grove and orchard.
Mr. Groeling was married a second time, August 6, 1885, to Mrs. Eliza (Bosse) Knost, widow of Fred Knost. She was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, and is a sister of her husband's first wife. Her husband died August 10, 1882.
Our subject is identified with the Democratic party, and has represented the people of his township as assessor, trustee and as a member of the school board, reflecting much credit upon himself.


JOHN McPHERRIN, one of the well-known and highly respected citizens of Clarinda, came to Page County in the fall of 1873 from Knox County, Illinois. He is a native of Ohio, born near Cincinnati, October 3, 1813, his parents being George and Elizabeth (Alexander) McPherrin, natives of Virginia and Pennsylvania respectively. This worthy couple reared a family of six sons and five daughters. John is the second child and when but a small boy his parents removed to Champaign County, Ohio, where he grew to manhood and obtained his education in the subscription schools. His early training included habits of energy and industry which have followed him through life as a blessing. It was in 1835 the family removed to Knox County, Illinois, where they were among the first settlers and where the father and mother passed the remainder of their days.
John returned to Ohio and at the age of twenty-five years he was married to Miss Lucinda Curl. By this union three children were born: Isaac N., W. M., attorney, deceased and Elizabeth, wife of George Harris. Mrs. McPherrin died in the spring of 1851, in Knox County, Illinois. December 30, 1852, Mr. McPherrin was united in marriage to Mrs. Hannah E. Swarts, whose maiden name was Chesney; her husband was Rev. Samuel D. Swarts, by whom she had three children: Thomas Edward, Abraham D. and Emma C, wife of Frank White. Mr. and Mrs. McPherrin have had born of their last marriage two children: Samuel Chesney, an attorney of Kansas City, and Sarah A., wife of F. O. Frazier of Los Angeles, California.
In 1873 Mr. McPherrin removed to Page County as before stated, and since that time he has been extensively engaged in improving wild land; he placed 640 acres in one body in Tarkio Township under cultivation, and although he has sold several tracts he still owns a goodly number of acres, while he resides in Clarinda. Politically he is a Republican. He has been a devoted member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for fifty years, and has served as class-leader and as [page 570] a member of the official board for many years. During all this time he has lived an upright conscientious life, and has ever contributed liberally of his means for the support of the church. His wife and children are also acceptable members of the same church. His Christian influence for fifty years has been cast on the side of right and purity as taught in the Gospel, and the world is the better for his example.


DAVID PORTER is one of the typical sons of the " Emerald Isle " to whom we as Americans are indebted for the settlement and development of many of our western lands. He was born in the County Armagh, Ireland, in October, 1811, and is a son of Robert and Esther (White) Porter. He served an apprenticeship at the cooper's trade, which he followed for several years. When he was twenty years of age the spirit of adventure would no longer be stilled, and he bade farewell to home and native land and sailed away to the New World; he embarked at Belfast and landed at Quebec, Canada, proceeding at once to Mercer County, Pennsylvania, where he worked at his trade.
Mr. Porter was united in marriage in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, in 1835, to Miss Eliza Guy, also a native of county Armagh, Ireland, and daughter of George and Bessie (Hazelep) Guy; her paternal grandfather was Hugh Guy, and her mother's parents were James and Margaret (Bradshaw) Hazelep.
The tide of emigration was westward, and desirous of obtaining a home for himself, Mr. Porter removed in 1850, to Washington County, Iowa, where he resided for two years. He then came to Page County and settled on a tract of wild land in Harlan Township; there he improved a farm of 200 acres, planting a grove and an orchard; he lived there until 1866, when he came to Clarinda and again began working at his trade. He also built a livery and feed stable, which he managed for some time, but which is now rented.
Mr. and Mrs. Porter are the parents of eleven children, eight of whom are deceased: Esther Elizabeth is the wife of D. Crawford; Mary J. was the wife of Patterson Hoag, and John R., who is a resident of Colorado. In his native land Mr. Porter belonged to the religious sect known as Covenanters, and is a man of the highest integrity of character. He and his wife have lived together fifty-five years, peaceful, industrious, and contented years, and enjoy the respect and confidence of all who know them.


JOSEPH C. JOURNEY is descended from English ancestors. His grandfather emigrated from England to America and settled in Virginia. John A. Journey, the father of Joseph O, was a soldier in the war of 1812. When a young man he married a Miss Green of Georgetown, Virginia. They had two sons, both of whom are still living, John and William. The mother died in Ohio, where the family were living in Perry County. Mr. Journey afterward married a Mrs. Brown, whose maiden name was Annie Hopkins, a daughter of Daniel Hopkins of Ohio; seven children were born of this union: Judia A., James B., Robert R., Joseph C, Stephen W., Susan J. and Thomas J. In 1849 the father emigrated with his family to Jay County, Indiana, and settled on a farm, where he passed the remainder of his days; he died in 1853. He was a prosperous farmer, owning at the time of his death 200 acres of land. He was a consistent member of the United Brethren Church. [page 571] Joseph C., his son, was born on his father's farm in Perry County, Ohio, in 1833. When quite a young man he learned the plasterer's trade, at which he worked for thirty-two years. He was married in 1854, at twenty-one years of age, to Miss Samorie T. Keyser, daughter of Jesse and Martha (Yost) Keyser. Mrs. Keyser was a daughter of Eli Yost of Mercer County, Ohio. To Mr. and Mrs. Journey have been born five children: Martha A., Benoni B., Viola, Pearlie C, Thomas and June F. Soon after his marriage Mr. Journey settled in Portland, Jay County, Indiana, where he followed his trade until 1861. He then removed to Sterling, Illinois, and August 7, 1862, he enlisted in Company D, Seventy-fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, as a private; he was appointed Corporal, and participated in the battles of Perryville and Stone River and a number of skirmishes; he served nearly three years and was mustered out at Nashville and honorably discharged at Chicago, July 1, 1865. At one time when on picket duty he contracted a cold which settled iu his hips and rendered him helpless; he was taken in an ambulance to the hospital at Franklin, Tennessee, but was soon removed to Nashville to Hospital No. 19, where he lay for four weeks; he then went on guard duty, having charge of the linen room. After this he was placed on guard at the barracks under Colonel Falk until he was mustered out. He then returned to his family in Mercer County, Ohio, broken in health, and engaged at his old trade as a plasterer. On November 1, 1866, he was taken ill and was not able to do any work until September, 1867. In 1869 he removed to Iowa and purchased a farm of forty acres in Amity Township, Page County. In 1879 he bought his present farm of 140 acres. His wife died in 1878 and his children are all married. In politics he is a stanch Republican.   He receives from the Government a pension for his services to his country, but not commensurate with his disability. He is a man of liberal views, and although a diligent student of the Bible he has his own opinion in regard to religious matters; he has read the Old Testament through twelve times and the New Testament about twenty-five times, and for the past seven years he has been a daily reader of its pages. He believes in the principles of the Masonic fraternity, of which he is a member. Through all his life he has borne a brave and honorable part in its labors and responsibilities, and is held in high esteem by all who know him.


ELMORE J. HERSEY is a prominent farmer and stock dealer of Page County. He was born in Beloit, Wisconsin, October 2, 1851. His father, Rev. Hiram Hersey, was a Methodist minister; he was born in Maine, September 9, 1812, and began active life as a clerk in the city of Bangor. He removed to Illinois in 1837, where he taught school for a number of years. From that place he went to Wisconsin and was engaged to teach the first school in Beloit. In 1843 he was united in marriage to Nancy Fawcett. He was converted when a young man and in 1848 he united with the Wisconsin Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, of which he remained a member until his death. In 1874 he removed to Hastings, Nebraska, and preached more or less in the country around, sometimes with great success. He died at his home in Hastings, February 9, 1884. He was the father of but three children: Julia A., Elmore J. and Ella A. Julia married George Haguewood. In 1870 Mr. Hersey bought a farm of 120 acres in Page County, Iowa, where [page 572] his son Elmore J. now resides. He was a man who had the respect and confidence of all who knew him, and was a faithful and earnest minister of the gospel. His preaching in the wilds of Wisconsin at an early day was with zeal and fidelity.
Elmore J. Hersey, the subject of this notice, received an academic education, and when his father came to Page County in 1870 he accompanied him; when his father went to Hastings, Nebraska, he remained on the land in Page County and placed it under good cultivation. He bought more land and after a few years he bought out his father and continued farming; he has been very prosperous and now owns 400 acres of fine land, well improved and stocked. June 15, 1880, he was united in marriage to Miss Ellen Grove, daughter of Jephthah Grove, an old, well-known resident of the county, a full notice of whom will be found on another page of this volume. In his political opinions Mr. Hersey adheres to the principles of the Republican party. He and his estimable wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He is one of the trustees of the church at Shambaugh. He has represented the people of his township as trustee and as clerk; he is a very active, energetic man and a thorough, practical farmer, enjoying the confidence and respect of the community in which he lives.
During the winter of 1870-,71 Mr. Hersey taught the Nixon school in his township, and in 1871-'72, the Fruits school in East River Township, and then the Calhoon school. In 1883 he taught the Nixon school again, making five terms in this county. His sister Ella was also a teacher by profession.
Nancy Fawcett, wife of the Rev. Hiram Hersey, and mother of Elmore J., was born near Winchester, Frederick County, Virginia, July 18, 1817.   She lived in the place of her birth until she was eight years old. Her parents were Quakers and most of their relatives removed to Ohio on account of their anti-slavery sentiments, but Mr. Fawcett went to Tennessee, and was one of the early surveyors of that State. On the death of her father in 1831 her mother removed to Decatur, Illinois, and in 1832 married Jesse Walker, one of the pioneer Methodist preachers mentioned in Peter Cartwright's work, when they moved about twelve miles from Chicago on the Des Plaines River, where they lived till after his death in 1835, when she returned to Decatur, Illinois. He assisted in the building of the first Methodist Church in Chicago. The Rev. Hiram Hersey was married to Nancy Fawcett in Decatur, Illinois, October 1, 1843.


THOMAS ROSS, dealer in guns, sporting goods and pocket cutlery, became identified with the interests of Shenandoah in October, 1881, when he established his present business in the face of the advice of business men of the town who thought no support would be accorded an enterprise of this character; that they were wrong and his judgment was right has been abundantly proven by the result. The people of the community now look upon this business as of great necessity and advantage as any other, and certainly none other has proven more profitable and more satisfactory to its proprietor, or has met with more favor from the public.
Mr. Ross is an experienced and expert workman, and no work, however complicated or delicate, need be sent abroad for repairs with so skillful a hand at home.
Thomas Ross was born at Westville, Franklin County New York, July 16, 1853, and is [page 573] a son of James and Sarah (Dickey) Ross, natives of the Empire State. The Ross family is of Scotch-Irish ancestry. James Ross, Jr., died when Thomas was but but thirteen years old, so our subject was early thrown upon his own responsibilities. He had become familiar with the use of tools, his father having been a blacksmith, and he resolved to become a mechanic. Accordingly, when he was nineteen years old he left home, going to Springfield, Massachusetts. He first found employment with the Dwight Cotton Corporation at Chicopee, but after a few months secured a position with the Davis Level and Tool Company at Springfield, where he served an apprenticeship of three years, becoming a skilled workman on all small tools. He then worked two years in Smith & Wesson's gun factory at Springfield, and then for J. Stevens & Co. at Chicopee Falls.
He was afterward employed by the Ames Manufacturing Company to rearrange and improve the mechanism of the Eldridge sewing-machine. He then entered the factory of the Florence Sewing Machine Company, and was with Barney & Berry on special die work. He remained with this last named firm until he came to Iowa. In 1875 he went to the Black Hills, where he spent one and a half years in mining and prospecting, but with limited success. The financial success attending his business enterprise in Shenandoah is highly gratifying.
In 1875 Mr. Ross's mother with her family emigrated to Iowa and settled in Fremont County, where they are now residing; the family consists of John, Samuel, Rachel, Charles,Henry and Addie; Fred died in childhood.
Thomas Ross and Cora E. Martin were joined in matrimony at Chicopee, Massachusetts, April 2, 1876. Mrs. Ross was born in Vermont, January 11, 1857.   Six children have been born by this union: Homer W., Arthur H., Bertha M., Mabel, Harry and Junia A.


E. J. CADWELL, one of the representative stock-growers of Colfax Township, came to Page County from Henry County, Illinois, in March, 1874, making the journey by rail as far as Osceola, and from that point by team. He has been closely identified with the general interests of the county ever since the date of his settlement.
Mr. Cadwell was born July 24, 1839, in Erie County, Pennsylvania, and he is a son of George and Sally M. (Porter) Cadwell, natives of Connecticut and New York respectively. The father died in 1879 at the age of seventy-four years, and the mother survived until 1885, dying at the age of seventy-eight years. Justus Cadwell, the paternal grandfather of E. J., was supposed to be of German origin.
George Cadwell and wife reared a family of twelve children, of whom E. J. was the sixth child; there were seven sons and five daughters. In 1841 the family removed to Knox County, Illinois, where E. J. grew to manhood. He was reared to farm life and attended the common schools, which at that day did not afford the advantages now given boys desirous of receiving an education.
As the dark war cloud of the Rebellion became heavier and more threatening, Mr. Cadwell, fired with young patriotism, entered the ranks of the Union army, enlisting August 1, 1862, in Company K, Eighty-third Illinois Volunteer Infantry. Among other engagements in which he participated were those of Fort Donelson and Waverly, Tennessee. He served his country faithfully, never shirking a known duty, and was mus-[page 574] tered out June 25, 1865, at Nashville, Tennessee.
September 27, 1866, Mr. Cadwell was united in marriage to Miss Alma M. Field. She was born in Cornwall, Vermont, March 2, 1843, and is a daughter of Norman and Happalonia (Chadderdon) Field, natives of the " Green Mountain" State, and of most excellent ancestry. Mrs. Cadwell's grand father Field was a Revolutionary soldier, as was also his oldest son. The Fields were of Welsh extraction. James Chadderdon, Mrs. Cadwell's maternal grandsire, was of German origin, while his wife, Lydia, was of English descent. It may be stated in this connection that Norman Field was an own cousin to Cyrus W. Field of world-wide fame. Ethan Allen, of Revolutionary note, was a cousin of Mrs. Cadwell's grandfather.
In 1853 Mrs. Cadwell's parents removed to Illinois. When she was but fourteen years of age she began teaching school, her first term being held in a log school-house in 1857. She was very successful in her profession so early begun, and continued to teach for many terms. Her father died in Wisconsin in 1887, aged eighty-six years; the mother survives at the age of eighty-three years, and makes her home with her daughter.
Mr. and Mrs. Cadwell are the parents of four daughters: May M., Carrie L,, Edna H. and Nettie E. The two older are teachers, and are well fitted for such a calling. The parents themselves, having traveled the rugged paths of life, determined to give their children every possible advantage, and are now happy in the thought that these opportunities have been improved.
Mr. Cadwell is a Republican in political thought and action, and has held numerous local offices. He belongs to Page Post, G. A. R. at Coin, and is a worthy member of the Masonic fraternity at Blanchard, and of the Rising Star Lodge, No. 180, Ancient Order of United Workmen.
Both Mr. and Mrs. Cadwell are acceptable members of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Coin. In all the various capacities in which our esteemed subject has served the people of Page County, he has been faithful. He came to Colfax Township at a time when all was new and wild, and when fuel was scarce and had to be carried great distances. There were no railroads, and produce had to be taken to markets many miles away and sold very cheaply. The years 1875 and 1876 brought the grasshopper plague and the severe wind-storm, both of which swept away all the growing crops.
Enduring hardships like good soldiers both Mr. and Mrs. Cadwell kept at work, and today are in good circumstances, surrounded by all the comforts of life, the parents of four daughters, who are an honor to their father and mother and the county in which they reside.
To the original purchase of forty acres Mr. Cadwell has added at different times as his means would permit, until he now has 223 acres. He makes a specialty of breeding fine horses, in which he is very successful.


DR. JAMES G. WILLIAMS is one of the oldest and most extensive practitioners in Page County. Robert Williams, his father, was a native of Maryland, and is of Welsh origin. He was a very wealthy man, owning an extensive distillery and holding a number of slaves. He married Margaret McAlister and to them were born nine children: Mary A., Harriet, Eliza, Louisa, John B., William H., James G., Joseph H. and Margaret. Mr. Williams removed to Pickaway County, Ohio, about the year 1823, and [page 575] resided there until 1839, when he emigrated to Illinois; there he spent the remainder of his days in Fulton County, dying at the age of seventy-four years. He was a zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and was class-leader for many years.
Dr. James G. Williams was born in Pickaway County, Ohio, in 1830, and received a common-school education. He was entirely dependent upon his own resources, as his father had met with reverses in business, and had lost his property. In his early youth a taste for medicine was developed, and he began his study under Dr. W. H. Efnor, formerly of New York, but then located at Richmond, Keokuk County, Iowa. Dr. Williams had come to Iowa in 1849 at the acre of nineteen years, and after completing his medical studies he began the practice of his chosen profession at Richland in 1859; there he remained until 1865, when he removed to Kirkville, Wapello County, Iowa, where he had a large and very successful practice; at that time an epidemic, spotted fever, was raging, which he met with good success; his fees for two months were $1,500. In 1870 he came to Page County and located in Braddyville, after spending a few months in Clarinda. He enjoys the reputation of being a very skillful and careful physician, which his large and increasing practice fully justifies, and as a man and a citizen he is above reproach.
The Doctor was united in marriage in Jefferson County, Iowa, in 1850, to Elizabeth J. Hardin, a daughter of Rev. Henry and Catherine (Ludwick) Hardin. Of this union seven children have been born, four of whom are now living: Mary A., Catherine D., Henry J., and Harvey B. Dr. Williams has given his children a good education at Amity College, and has trained them to habits of thrift and industry. He is in comfortable circumstances, owning 102 acres of land near Braddyville, which is excellently improved; there are substantial buildings, one of the finest orchards in the county, containing 700 trees of best varieties, and a vineyard in full bearing condition.
Our worthy subject is still in the prime of life and possesses the confidence of the public to a highly satisfactory degree. His first wife died in 1869, and in 1870 he was married to Francis M. Comstoek, daughter of Dr. A. B. Comstoek, one of the oldest physicians in Iowa and one of the wealthiest farmers in Wapello County, owning 600 acres of land. Mrs. Williams's mother was Sarah A. Sullivan, one of the first white children born in Iowa. Dr. A. B. Comstock once represented Wapello County in the Legislature some years ago, and is one of the best posted men in political matters in the State of Iowa.


JAMES M. BLACK, an honored resident of College Springs, Iowa, is deserving of mention in this work on account of his military record, if for no other reason. He comes from an old family of Scotch-Irish extraction, who settled in the State of Pennsylvania at a time long preceding the Revolutionary war; there were members of the family in that war and also in the war of 1812. James Black, the grandfather of James M. Black, was born in the city of Philadelphia, and was a weaver by trade. He married Nancy Clarke, and of this union were born nine children: Jane, Margaret, Sarah, Rebecca, Elizabeth, William, Clarke, Hamilton and Samuel. Mr. Black emigrated to Maysville, Kentucky, in 1805, making the journey in a keel-boat from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He lived in Maysville and followed his occupation fourteen years, and at the end of that [page 576] time he removed to Floyd County, Indiana, where he settled on a farm; in 1832 he went to Pennsylvania to make a visit and while there died, aged eighty-four years. Clarke H. Black, his son and the father of James M., was also born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; when he was two years of age his parents removed to Kentucky, where he grew to manhood. He married Annie Starr, a daughter ot Jeremiah and Zerusha (Barnhardt) Starr. The Starrs were of German descent, and had settled in Pennsylvania at an early day; the Barnhardts were also Pennsylvanians of German origin. To Mr. and Mrs. Black were born two children, James M. and Enos. The father was a ship-carpenter by trade, and was engaged in this occupation until 1861, when there was a call for men to go to the defense of this country. He responded, becoming a member of a Kentucky regiment; he was in the commissary department, and was taken prisoner, but was soon exchanged and served all through that terrible conflict. After the close of the war he made his home with his sons, Enos and James; he died at the age of sixty-nine years. He was a man of industrious, frugal habits, and a true and loyal citizen.
James M. Black, son of Clarke H. and Annie (Starr) Black, was born in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1835; he received his education in the common schools, and in early life learned the business of a gardener. In 1856 he came to Illinois and settled in Warren County. In 1860 he was united in marriage to Nancy J. Nelson, a daughter of James M. and Martha (Hodges) Nelson; of this union three children have been born: Charles Francis, George H. and Anna M. James M. Nelson was of English origin, and removed from East Tennessee to Knox County, Illinois, where he passed the remainder of his days.
In 1862 Mr. Black enlisted in Company B, One Huudred and Second Illinois Volunteer Infantry and served to the close of the war; he participated in the following engagements: Perryville, Kentucky; Stone River, Lookout Mountain, Resaca, Pine Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, New Hope Church, Pickett's Mills, Dallas, Rocky Face, Mill Creek Gap, Tanner's Ferry, Cassville, Big Shanty, Lost Mountain, Culp's Farm, Peach Tree Creek and Atlanta. At one time he was under fire ninety-two days without cessation. He was also in a great many skirmishes and did a considerable amount of scout service, being detailed with Colonel Truesdale's company of scouts. During all his service he received but two slight wounds. He was with Sherman on his immortal " March to the Sea," and was present at the Grand Review at Washington city. He was a valiant, faithful soldier, and was honorably discharged after the declaration of peace. He is a member of Warren Post, No. 11, G. A. R., Clarinda. Politically he affiliates with the Republican party.
Mr. Black removed to Page Couuty in 1869, and since that time has been identified with all public enterprises having for their object the advancement of the community. He takes an active interest in education and has served as school director several terms. By his upright habits and fair dealing he has won an enviable reputation. He has given his children a liberal education, Annie and George being students at Amity College at the present time. Charles Francis has also attended college, but is now managing the farm.


JOHN M. FINE belongs to a family who emigrated to America from Germany and settled in North Carolina before the war of the Revolution; there were members of the family who were soldiers in that war,and they [page 577] fought valiantly in behalf of their adopted country. The grandfather of Mr. Fine was one of the pioneers of North Carolina and emigrated to Fountain County, Indiana, at an early day, being one of the first settlers. His son Peter, the father of John M., was born in Rowan County, North Carolina, and came with his father to Indiana when quite a young man. He married Miss Eliza A. Hybarger, of Fountain County, Indiana, a daughter of Jonathan Hybarger, who was of German extraction. Mr. and Mrs. Fine were the parents of nine children: Amanda C., John M., Aaron C., Washington L., Ephraim J., Martha C., Harriet A. and America A. The father became a prosperous farmer and for many years lived in Indiana. In 1857 he removed to Taylor County, Iowa, and bought a steam saw-mill, which he managed for several years; he then returned to the occupation to which he had been trained in his youth, farming. He purchased 200 acres of excellent land in Polk Township, where he passed the remainder of his days. He and his wife were members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and took a decided stand on religious aud moral questions. Mr. Fine was an exhorter and local preacher in his church, and was an earnest laborer in the cause of his Master. Politically he was identified with the Democratic party. John M.Fine was born in Fountain County, Indiana, May 13, 1842, and was reared to the life of a farmer; he received his education in the common schools at that time, and when a youth of fifteen years he came with his father to Taylor County, Iowa. Here he was united in marriage to Miss Rachel Emrick, a daughter of Samuel and Hannah (Market) Emrick, who were originally from Ohio, but early settlers in Fountain County, Indiana; they also emigrated to Taylor County, Iowa, in  1858.   To Mr. and Mrs. Fine were born eight children: William T. S.,. Albert A., Mamie C., Peter D., Ada A., Rhoda B., Ira E., and Casper G. Mr. Fine settled on a farm in Polk Township, Taylor County, and lived there until 1886, when he bought his present farm; it consists of 273 acres of fine farming land and is improved with good buildings. He and his faithful wife have worked with untiring effort, and by industry and frugality have accumulated a comfortable fortune. They have brought up their children to habits of thrift and economy, and to appreciate the self-denial and labor they have performed in order to assist them in starting out in life for themselves. Mr. and Mrs. Fine are consistent members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Their oldest son, William T. S., married Miss Emna Lasley, a daughter of Israel Lasley, of this county, and to them is born one child, Orpha F.


JAMES D. MAXWELL is one of the most substantial and reliable farmers of this section of Iowa, and is descended from good old Irish stock. His grandfather was a native of Ireland and emigrated to America, first settling in the State of Ohio; thence he removed to Morgan County, Indiana. He was the father of six children: John, James, Robert, William, Harvey and Ellen. William Maxwell, father of James D., was born in Morgan County, Indiana, and married Miss Lettie Manley, daughter of John R. Manley, of Monroe County, Iowa. To Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell were born six children, who grew to maturity: Jackson, James, John, Robert, George and Thomas. About the year 1854 Mr. Maxwell undertook to move to Monroe County, Iowa, where his wife's father lived; but he was taken ill on the way and died at Bloomington, Illinois, at the age of forty-six [page 578] years. Mrs. Maxwell continued the journey and joined her relatives in Iowa.
James D. Maxwell, son of William and Lettie (Manley) Maxwell, was born in 1844 and received but a limited education. He came with his mother to Iowa, and married Jane Townsend, daughter of Ellison and Catherine (Zimmer) Townsend.   Six children were born of this union: Lettie, Ella, Elizabeth, John, George and Gracie.   After his marriage Mr. Maxwell settled in 1876 on his present farm.   He has been a hard-working man and has accumulated considerable property; his farm consists of 120 acres, which is in an advanced state of cultivation and well improved.   He has been called to represent his people as township trustee, and has discharged his duties with ability and to the satisfaction of the public.   He stands high among his fellow citizens as an honorable, upright man.   He is a member of the United Brethren Church, while his wife is a Baptist. Mrs. Maxwell was born in Missouri in 1853. Her grandfather, William Townsend, of Morgan County, Indiana, removed to Andrew County, Missouri, but returned to Indiana, where he owned a farm in Morgan County. Ellison Townsend moved to Andrew County, Missouri, settling on a farm, where he died at the age of fifty-four years.   He was the father of eleven children: Elizabeth, John, Rebecca, Delilah, William, Mary, Joseph F., Jesse, Jane A., Martha and Louis.


C. S. HART was born in Warren County, Ohio, March 28, 1827. His father, George Hart, settled in Ohio in 1802, coming from Lexington, Kentucky, although he was born in Rockbridge County, Virginia. He was the son of James Hart, a Revolutionary soldier, who was at the surrender of Yorktown. He was of Irish extraction, his ancestors having come from County Antrim. George Hart and wife had a family of eleven children, five sons and six daughters. They removed to Adams County, Illinois, in 1834, and to Peoria County in 1846. The mother, Martha (Sleasman) Hart, was born at Cape May, New Jersey, and was the daughter of Christopher Sleasman, of Dutch ancestry. She died in 1851, and the father died in 1884, aged eighty-five years. He was a farmer by occupation and followed that calling all his days. He was a member of the old Whig party, and in his religious faith he was a United Presbyterian.
C. S. Hart, the subject of this sketch, obtained his education in the old-time, log school house, furnished with slab seats and floor. In 1854 he removed to Mercer County, Illinois, and resided there ten years. From 1864 to 1866 he spent in travel in the different States, and finally settled in Hancock County, Illinois, from which section he removed to Page County in 1875.
Mr. Hart was united in marriage April 7, 1851, to Mary Warwick, who was born at Glendale, Ohio, and who was the daughter of James Warwick. By this union five children were born, only one of whom is still living, Henry Chapman, a resident of Kansas. Mrs. Hart died November 23, 1863, and was deeply mourned by all who knew her. Mr. Hart was married to his present wife December 24, 1868. She was Miss Elizabeth Kerr, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and a daughter of Alexander and Isabella (Donnan) Kerr, natives of Scotland. When Mrs. Hart was a child her parents removed to Peoria County, Illinois, and thence to Keokuk County, Iowa, where she grew to womanhood, and where the parents passed the remainder of their days. By this last union two children were born, Mary and Maggie. [page 579] In 1875 Mr. Hart removed to Page County and settled in Harlan Township, where he resided eight years; at the end of that time he removed to College Springs, Amity Township, where he remained two years. In 1886 he came to his present farm, which he purchased from Hon. E. B. Hoag. He erected a fine residence in 1886, at a cost of $2,000, and it is a most attractive home.
Politically our subject is a Prohibitionist, and is a strong advocate of the principles of his party. He is a member of the United Presbyterian Church at Coin, and has been an elder of the church His family are also members of the same denomination. He is a man of much intelligence and stands very high in his community. He upholds the principles of morality, religion and temperance, and has reared his family so that they are an ornament to society.
Melville Stone Leslie, a grandson, finds a home in the family of Mr. Hart. He is the son of John R. and Catherine Hart Leslie. The mother is deceased.


DAVID McAFEE, one of the reliable farmers of Amity Township, belongs to a family of Scotch-Irish descent. His grandfather, David McAfee, was from the Highlands of Scotland, and when a young man he became a soldier in the British army, where he served twenty-one years. He came to this country and served in the English army in the war of 1812. After his discharge he settled on a farm in county Antrim, Ireland. He married Rosa Smith, a native of county Londonderry, Ireland, and to them were born four children: Barbara, Rose, Peggie and John. The father lived on this same farm until his death. He was a consistent member of the Presbyterian Church.
John McAfee, his son, the father of our subject, was a native of the beautiful Emerald Isle, and married Martha Beverland, a daughter of William Beverland. Of this union five children were born: Jane, Martha, Rosena, Elizabeth and David. Mr. McAfee was a Presbyterian, and lived and died on the same farm on which his father had passed so many of his days. After her husband's death Mrs. McAfee married William McIntyre and emigrated to America with her family. Her son David was born in county Antrim, Ireland, October 21, 1826. He learned the shoemaker's trade, and at the age of twenty-two years he bade farewell to his native land and emigrated to America a few years after his mother landed. He settled in Philadelphia, and was there married to Mary J. Qnigg in 1851. He afterward removed to Conshohocken, and worked at his trade nine years as a journeyman, and nine years for himself, employing men in custom-made work.
Mr. and Mrs. McAfee are the parents of seven children: John, David, Isaac, William, Martha, Elizabeth and Samuel M. In March, 1867, the family came to Page County, Iowa, desirous of securing a home for themselves; the parents also considered that there was a much better opportunity for their children than in the East. At first Mr. McAfee bought only forty acres, but as his means increased he made further investments until he now has 160 acres of fine land in an advanced state of cultivation. He and his wife are both members of the United Presbyterian Church. He has always been a friend to educational movements, and has served as school director. He has given his children liberal advantages, and they have made much of their opportunities. Mr. McAfee is truly a self-made man. From a boy he has made his own way in the world.   When he left his [page 580] native land he had nothing but the hope and courage of youth to rely upon in his venture in a New World, but with long and patient efforts he has mastered the situation. He has acquired a home and the means of maintaining his family, and he has always taken an honest pride in " owing no man anything." His son David married Emma McGinnis, and they have two children: Isaac married Luella Babbitt, and they have one child; John married Jennie Grafft.
Mrs. McAfee's parents, William and Nancy (Beard) Quigg, had three children who grew to maturity: Thomas, John and Mary J. The father was a farmer in county Antrim, Ireland.


DAVID CALHOON is one of the prominent and reliable settlers who came from Ohio in 1857 and located on a tract of land in Buchanan Township, Page County, where he has since resided. His father, George Calhoon, was born in Beaver County, Pennsylvania, and was of Scotch-Irish descent. He married Jane Kerr of Virginia, and they were the parents of seven children: John, James, Alexander, Robert, Newton, Hannah and Eliza. The father lived for at least forty years on the old Ohio homestead. His grandfather, David Calhoon, removed to Ohio at an early day and settled in Holmes County. Mr. and Mrs. Calhoon were members of the Presbyterian Church and were among the well-to-do farmers in the neighborhood of Millersburg, Ohio, where they owned 180 acres of fine, farming land. Mr. Calhoon held various local offices and was held in high esteem. In. 1866 he sold his farm in Ohio and removed to Iowa, where he passed the remainder of his days with his children. He died in 1872 at the age of eighty-one years.
David Calhoon, the subject of this brief biographical notice, was born in 1824, on the old homestead in Holmes County, Ohio. He was reared a farmer and received his education in the common schools. He was married to Mary Berkey, a daughter of James and Elizabeth (Faith) Berkey, May 31,1849. They have had ten children born to them: Leander W., William G., Elizabeth J., George N., Sarah E., Mary E., Lewis D., Alma M., James W. and Eddie B. Mr. and Mrs. Calhoon resided on the homestead seven years after marriage and in 1857 emigrated to Iowa, and settled on their present farm. They are members of the Presbyterian Church. Mr. Calhoon has taken an active interest in the cause of education and has held the office of school director several terms. He owns 240 acres of fine land well improved; the residence stands on a knoll in the midst of a beautiful grove of burr oaks.
Elizabeth J. Calhoon married William E. Gray; Leander married Emma Baker; Mary E. is the wife of William Yan Sweringen: George N. married Ida Berket; Lewis D. married Amelia Henneman; Sarah E. married William E. Anderson; and Alma M. is the wife of J. L. Berry.
Mr. Calhoon is a man who has lived an upright life and has gained the respect of all his fellow citizens. The entire family is highly esteemed by all who know them.

GEORGE McCULLOUGH is one of the most prominent farmers of Amity Township, Page County. His great­grandfather, the founder of a Scotch-Irish family, removed from Scotland to county Antrim, Ireland.  He was a farmer by occupa-[page 581] tion and a member of the Presbyterian Church. His son, William, was also a farmer and a Presbyterian in his religious faith. He married Jennet Lackey and to them were born six children: Marmaduke, William, John, George, Jennet and Elizabeth. John and William were soldiers in the Irish Rebelion of 1790.
George, the father of the subject of this notice, was born in county Antrim, Ireland, in 1780, June 17. He married, in Ireland, Miss Jennet Thompson, daughter of John and Margaret (Clark) Thompson, and of this union eleven children were born, of whom George, Jr., is the tenth; the oldest child was born in Ireland, and the others in Chester County, South Carolina, whither the parents had emigrated in October, 1806. They were twice shipwrecked on the passage, but finally landed in Charleston harbor in March, 1807. Mr. McCullough bought land in Chester County, where he remained until 1830; he then removed to Scott County, Indiana, and settled on a farm; he owned 480 acres of land, which he divided among his children. In 1858 he and his wife came to Iowa with their son George; the father lived to be eighty-eight years of age, but the mother died the year of her arrival in Iowa, in her seventy-fourth year. They were both members of the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church. Mr. McCullough was a devout man and an elder in that church for many years.
George McCullough, Jr., was born in Chester County, South Carolina, July 3, 1826, and was but four years old when his parents removed to Scott County, Indiana. He received a good education in the common schools and the High School at New Philadelphia, Indiana. After leaving school he engaged in teaching in the winter season and worked on the farm in the summer. At the age of twenty-four years he went to Preble County, Ohio, where he was married October 15, 1850, to Miss Sarah A. McKee, a daughter of John and Nancy (Wilson) McKee, who were of Scotch-Irish descent. Mr. McKee was born in Ireland and emigrated to South Carolina about the year 1800, and thence to Kentucky, where Mrs. McCullough was born in Todd County. After Mr. McCullough's marriage he remained on his father's farm, a portion of which had been deeded to him, until 1858; in that year he removed to Iowa and settled on his present farm, which consists of 365 acres.
Mr. and Mrs. McCullough are the parents of eight children: John M., who married Annie White; Margaret Isabella, wife of J. F. Reid; George A., who married Nettie White; Nannie J., Martha E., wife of John Farquhar ; James W., Joseph and Mary. Nettie White McCullough is deceased, and her husband, George A., married for his second wife Eva McKinley. The parents are devoted members of the United Presbyterian Church, Mr. McCullough having united with that society at the age of twenty years; he has been an elder since 1863, a period of twenty-eight years. He has been trustee of Amity College the same length of time; he has always labored earnestly for the cause of the church and education and to elevate the moral standard of the community. He has used his means with a liberal hand, and has given largely of his time and thought to many benevolent institutions. He is a man of strong intellect and of genuine, sterling worth. He has represented the people of his township as Justice of the Peace for fifteen years, and for four years was a member of the Board of Supervisors; he has been notary public for many years, and has transacted a great deal of business in this line. Twice he has been a delegate to the General Assembly of his church, and several times he has rep-[page 582] resented his church in the Synod. Politically he adheres to the principles of the Prohibition party. He has given his children a liberal education, and they are all members of the United Presbyterian Church. He has ever striven to live a life of integrity and honor in the service and fear of his Master, and he has been rewarded with the love and esteem of all who know him.


HENRY GRAFFT is the son of David Grafft, a native of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, who removed to Virginia when a young man and there married Annie Grove, a daughter of Benjamin Grove. Nine children were born of this union, who lived to years of maturity. Mr. and Mrs. Grafft settled on a farm in Preble County, Ohio, where they passed the remainder of their days. They were very prosperous, owning 480 acres of fine farming land; they assisted their children to make a start in life for themselves, and taught them habits of industry and economy. Henry Grafft, our subject, was born in Preble County, Ohio, in 1834, on the old homestead. He received a limited education in the common schools of that day, and was trained to the occupation of a farmer. Desirous of securing a home of his own he removed to Illinois when quite a young man, and at the age of twenty-one years he was united in marriage to Elizabeth Grove, a daughter of Abraham and Sarah (Greiner) Grove. This young couple settled on a farm in Woodford County, Illinois, where they lived fifteen years; they then disposed of their land, 180 acres, and moved to Livingston County, Illinois; in 1882 we find them in Hancock County, Illinois, where they bought a farm about six miles from Keokuk, Iowa; there  they  resided until  1886, and then they came to Page County, Iowa, and purchased their present farm; this land is well located near College Springs.
Mr. and Mrs. Grafft are the parents of seven children, three of whom died in their infancy: Charles E., Emma L., who died at the age of twenty-four years; Virginia M. and Sarah E. Charles married Rosolbia Crouch, of Hancock County, Illinois, and they have four children. Virginia is the wife of John McAfee. In his political opinions Mr. Grafft adheres to the principles of the Democratic party. He is an industrious, law-abiding citizen, and an honorable and up­right man.
The parents of Mrs. Grafft, Abraham and Sarah (Greiner) Grove, were natives of Virginia, removing from that State to Indiana, and thence to Woodford County, Illinois. They were the parents of eleven children. Sarah Grove, the mother of this family, at the age of eighty-four years wrote the following short sketch of her life, which we transcribe verbatim: " I was born December 10, 1805, in Augusta County, Virginia, and lived in the same house and on the same farm until 1824, when I was married to Abraham Grove. We remained in Virginia until 1832, when we moved to Indiana, where we bought a farm and lived until 1835. Then we came to Illinois and purchased land near the present village of Eureka and in the present county of Woodford. Here we lived until November 22, 1869, when my husband died; since which time I have lived with my children. I am the mother of eleven children, three of whom died in infancy. I have fifty grand­children,, and fifty-four great-grandchildren, and one great-great-grandchild." Mrs. Grove died July 6, 1889, and was a remarkably intelligent, vigorous woman of her age. She had two brothers who were soldiers in the war of 1812.   Her father, Jahn Greiner, [page 583] reared a family of eight children. He was a farmer in Augusta County, Virginia, where he lived many years.


ALEXANDER CALDWELL.—It is frequently the case that the sturdiest sons and daughters of America trace their ancestry back directly to the Old World, and we find many of our most distinguished citizens claiming their origin in the beautiful " Emerald Isle." James Caldwell, the grandfather of Alexander, bade farewell to the scenes of his youth and emigrated from Ireland to this country in 1774. He was a soldier in the war of the Revolution, and his old flint-lock musket was preserved in the family for many years, but was finally burst by an overcharge. Mr. Caldwell married Annie Summers, daughter of Joseph and Jane Summers, natives of Scotland. Mr. Summers was a miller and distiller by occupation, and became a very wealthy man, owning large tracts of land in Washington County, Pennsvlvania.
After Mr. Caldwell's marriage he settled in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and took up new land, which he hired cleared, while he pursued his own avocations. The country was wild and thinly settled, bears and wolves being free to roam about in great numbers. When the National pike was built it passed the farm of Mr. Caldwell, and he then erected a commodious brick residence, in which he lived as long as he remained in the State. He accumulated considerable wealth, and at the time of his death left a large property to his children. His wife was the only one of a family of six children who married, and their children inherited all the property of this family. Mr. and Mrs. Caldwell had born to them five children: two died in infancy; the three living were Andrew, Sarah and Jane. In 1850 the father joined his son Andrew in Licking County, Ohio, and died soon after at the great age of ninety-six years and six months. He was a man of unusual force of character and of a vigorous constitution. He was temperate in his habits and upright in all his dealings.
Joseph Summers, the father of Mrs. Caldwell, also lived to an advanced age, and although a distiller, he and his sons were all very temperate in their living.
Andrew Caldwell, son of James and Annie (Summers) Caldwell, was born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and was reared to the occupation of a farmer. In his early manhood he began devoting his time and attention to the live-stock business, buying and selling horses and cattle extensively, and meeting with flattering success. He married Rachel Martin, whose family emigrated to Pennsylvania from New Jersey. Of this union six children were born: Thomas, Alexander, Mary J., Joseph, James and Jesse. The family lived on the old Caldwell homestead. In 1842, the tide of emigration being westward, Mr. Caldwell moved to Licking County, Ohio, where he purchased land, on which he lived until 1852, when he went to Delaware County, Ohio. Before his death his father bought the farm in Licking County and presented it to his two grandsons, Thomas and Alexander. Andrew Caldwell spent the remaiuder of his days in Delaware County, Ohio, where he made a comfortable fortune. He and his wife were consistent members of the Baptist Church. He was a man of most excellent traits and of superior business qualifications. He died at the age of eighty years; his wife lived to be eighty-six, passing away in Essex, Page County, Iowa, at the home of her son Jesse.
Alexander Caldwell, our esteemed subject, [page 584] was born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, March 18, 1834, and is a son of Andrew and Rachel (Martin) Caldwell. When he was a lad eight years of age his father removed to the State of Ohio, where he grew to man's estate. He was united in marriage October, 1854, to Martha J. Ginn, a daughter of John and Sarah (Bidlock) Ginn, natives of the State of Delaware. The father of John Ginn was a native of Ireland, and an early settler in Ohio. The Bidlocks were Pennsylvania Germans. Mr. and Mrs. Caldwell are the parents of four children: Andrew, Sarah, deceased, Alexander M. and Alexien, twins. After his marriage Mr. Caldwell settled on a farm belonging to his father, on which he resided six years; in 1860 he removed to White County, Indiana, near the old Tippecanoe battle ground, where he bought 240 acres of land; he made this his home until 1871, when he came to Page County, Iowa. He bought 500 acres of wild land, which he has cultivated and converted into valuable farms; eighty acres each, or 240 acres, have been distributed among his children. He and his wife are both members of the Presbyterian Church, and he is one of the trustees of the church.
In addition to his other talents Mr. Caldwell is an inventor of no mean order. He has invented two valuable farming implements, a double oscillator, side-hill cultivator, and plow, and a universal cultivator; the first named implement can be used as a plow, cultivator, harrow, and pulverizer, and can be used to prepare the ground for any kind of a crop; it has been thoroughly tested and will soon be placed upon the general market; the cultivator is capable of thirty-four changes and is adjustable in every way, and can be used to cultivate the crop from the time of planting to harvesting inclusive. It is truly a wonderful machine.   Patents on both of these machines. Mr. Caldwell made the models for both of his inventions, which are finely executed; he is also constructing a full sized plow. These implements will be of great benefit to farmers, and will add honor to the already admirable record of the inventor.
Alexien Caldwell, daughter of Alexander Caldwell, married John Hipsley, and they are the parents of four children: Louis G., Cora M., Martha D. and Effie D. They reside upon a portion of the home farm. Andrew J. married Angeline Croft, and they have two children: Dora B. and Martha E; they also live on the home place. Alexander M. married Elizabeth Stoops, and they have two children: Thomas M. and William Guy. All of Mr. Caldwell's children are living near him on land given them from the home farm. In order to keep his children from seeking homes in distant parts he has encouraged them to remain near him by aiding them in securing their own homes.

JOSEPH A. FUNK, manager of the J. Cole & Co. elevator at Blanchard, will form the subject of the this biographical notice. The elevator has a capacity of 10,000 bushels and does an extensive business. Mr. Funk is the pioneer grain man of Blanchard and is one of the most active and reliable business men in Page County. He was born in Rockingham County, Virginia, March 30, 1844, and is a son of Jonathan and Sophia (Specht) Funk. The parents were both of German ancestry, and German was the exclusive language of the family. Joseph Funk, the paternal grandfather, was a soldier in the war of 1812. Joseph A. was reared on a farm in the famous Shenandoah Valley. In 1862 he removed to McDonough County, [page 585] Illinois, and attended school at Prairie City. When there was a call for men to go to the defense of the Union, he left the school-room and enlisted in Company B, One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Illinois Volunteer Infantry, under Colonel John Woods. He served faithfully and well until September, 1864, when he was honorably discharged; he then returned to his old home in Virginia.
Mr. Funk was united in marriage April 1, 1866, to Miss Philoma J. Kite, a native of Virginia, and a daughter of John and Delilah (Terflinger) Kite.   In October, 1866, he returned to Prairie City, Illinois, where he was engaged in the grain business until 1879; he then came to Blanchard, where he has resided ever since.   Politically he is a Republican of a well defined type.   He has held numerous local offices, and was elected Mayor of his town in 1889, serving with credit to himself and the best interests of the public. Being a pioneer of the township and town he has had much to do with molding and shaping public affairs.   For many years he has been a member of the school beard and is its present president.   He is a member of the Grand Army Post at Northboro, Iowa, and also belongs to Emmanuel Lodge, No. 405, A. F. & A. M., at Blanchard, and to the Chapter and Commandery, at Clarinda; he is an honored member of State Line Lodge, No. 429, 1. O. O. F.; of Blanchard Encampment, No. 67, and of Rising Star Lodge, No. 180, A. O. U. W.   He has been a charter member of each of these lodges and has passed all the chairs; he is the present District Deputy Grand Master of the I. O. O. F. for the fourteenth district.
Mr. and Mrs. Funk are the parents of three intelligent children: Addie A., Robert W. and Earl V.; the second child, Mary, died at the age of eighteen months.
There is no more popular and genial man in the business circles of Page County than Mr. Funk. He has always taken an active interest in the welfare of his community and has done his share towards its development.