1873 - 1973

A glimpse into the past...

making his loss some 3 or $4000, it traveled on destroying fences etc. Destroyed F. Campbell's house & hurt Mr. C. his wife and 2 children & his barn it then raised passed over Keota and traveled on about 10 mi. east here where it struck the ground again and the destruction was terrible killing some 10 persons injuring a great number, the loss cannot be estimated.

The Newtons, having a well developed community spirit, took an active interest in schools, mail services, civic affairs, and farmers clubs. Soon after their arrival in the west, Hosea was elected sub-director of the school board, and in May, 1859, Hosea and Hanno helped to build a schoolhouse on the Newton land.

Church played an important part in the life of the family. While at Fair Haven in 1848 they had all been baptized in the Episcopal church, and Sundays were spent at church—"all day and evening." During their first years in the west there were no churches, but Sunday School was held in the schoolhouse as early as July, 1859, and soon after this they arranged to have itinerant preachers conduct church in the schoolhouse. The year after the railroad was built and the new station at Keota established, interested folk got together, chose two lots for a Methodist church, formed a board of trustees, and on May 12, 1872, "Mr. Smock preached the first sermon in Keota," and the Newtons were present in full force to hear him. While there seems to have been some interest in spiritualism about 1860 in the neighborhood, only one mention was made in Hanno's diary of their attending a meeting.

For years Talleyrand was their mail center. About once a week someone would go after the mail for the neighborhood, that task usually being assumed by Hanno. Later on they had post office meetings, some at the Newton home, but wherever they were held, the Newtons always attended. However, up to 1874 no change had been made in their mail arrangements.

In civic and political matters the Newtons always showed keen interest. In 1862 Hosea was justice of the peace, using the authority of his office to perform marriage ceremonies and to make out deeds. In 1862 Hanno was constable, and in 1872 he was elected town clerk. Politically they were Republicans. Once, however, Hosea strayed from the fold and joined a new party known as the Anti-Monopolists. He threw his hat in the ring and was elected state senator, serving in the 1874 and 1876 sessions of the General Assembly at Des Moines. Hanno's description of the election follows:

Oct. 14, 1873, Election Day, the election was held at Keota for this Twp. Everything passed off very well. 190 votes cast. A pleasant and nice day. Oct. 15th. got through counting out last night about 3 P.M. I took the train at noon for Sigourney to take the returns up. Anti-Monopolists quite jubilant over their success. Father's majority for senator, 415.

Further mention is made in the diary of the times that Hosea went to Des Moines during the 1874 and 1876 sessions, but nothing is recorded of what part he took in the proceedings. The Senate Journal indicates that his defection from the Republican party lasted only one term, that of 1874; in the 1876 Journal, Hosea voted with the Republicans. He was one of the few Republicans who had defected to the Anti-Monopolists; when it seemed that the Democrats were taking over this third party movement, most of the Republicans returned to their former allegiance.

Hanno's experiences during the Civil War had probably strengthened his Republicanism. He had joined the Iowa State Militia when the war broke out, but the only bit of excitement he recorded was during the first few days of August, 1863, when he played a minor role in the shortlived uprising at South English which came to be known in Iowa history as the "Tally War." The Rev. Cyphert Tally of Keokuk County, a Baptist minister with a southern background, led a group of Dernocrats—'Copperheads" in the minds of all Republicans—into South English during a Republican rally there. Tally was shot down and died shortly thereafter. Hanno recounts his part in the ensuing hysteria:

Aug. 1, 1863. 7 P.M. started for Scotland...heard the report that there had been a fight at South English one man killed. Came on home mustered a crowd and I went up there with them.

Aug. 2. arrived at S.E. at daylight, a good deal of excitement. Sent a comm. to confer with the Copperheads.

Aug. 3. I stood on guard last night. Great excitement on account of the committee not returning sent out spies recruits comeing (sic) in from all quarters.

Aug. 4. Stood on guard last night. Col. Chipman of Washington took command today. P.M. built barricades and rifle pits at all of principle entrances. About sun down the Home Guards of Washington came with 40 extra stand of Arms.

Wed. Aug. 5. Had a very heavy rain last night. The Sheriff arrested 10 men today and started for Iowa City with them. About 100 men staid the bal. went home. I came home in the afternoon. The Governor (Samuel J. Kirkwood) went through Talleyrand and on to Sigourney. 4 companies of Militia at Sigourney.

Thus ended the Tally War and Hanno's military service.

World events affected the lives of the Newtons in only a remote way, and were reported merely as items of interest. A few such items mentioned were: a total eclipse of the sun at 5 P.M. on July 7, 1869; the celebration of the transmission of Queen Victoria's message over the Atlantic telegraph (about which they first heard in a letter from a friend in the East); and the Chicago fire, which news was also received by letter. The question of equal rights for women was debated at their Lyceum as early as December 21, 1858.

The progressive building up of the territory can easily be traced by the changing of trading centers. When the Newtons first started their building program in 1858, finishing lumber and other materials were hauled from Iowa City, 40 miles away; by 1867, when the addition was built, Hanno "went to Washington for lumber," 22 miles away; and in 1872, "Father went over to Keota and bought a load of lumber," one mile away, and he "got home at 9 AM." —a far cry from the three-day trips they had made fourteen years before.



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      A glimpse into the past...

Pioneers are distinguished by one thing in particular— they can lay claim to many firsts. Hanno recorded some of them: they bought their first sewing machine from Chicago in 1871; their first coal stove for the "front" room in 1863; on January 7, 1864, Hanno went to the "coal bank" for their first load of coal; Hosea Newton and J. Sherman laid the first rail for the railroad in Keokuk County; Hanno rode to Keota on the first train that went across Clear Creek on February 26, 1872; the first lumber which was brought into Keota by train was on March 1, 1872; and the whole Newton family heard the first sermon preached in Keota on May 12, 1872.

Cattle Killed in Storm
Newton Homestead
The Old Newton Homestead.
Cattle killed by storm2
Cattle killed by lightning on the Sander McCrabb farm. Insured by Pioneer Mutual Insurance Co.


The Pioneer Mutual Insurance Association was first organized as a township insurance association. In 1886 the township organization was reorganized and incorporated to include all of Keokuk County. It was incorporated as the "Farmers Pioneer Mutual Insurance Association of Keokuk County." The original officers were James Lyle, President; D. Keiser, Vice President; H.P. Newton, Secretary; James Chesney, Treasurer. At its origin it had $22,483 of insurance in force and paid claims of $1,129.01 in 1894, which are the oldest financial records to be found.

horse graphic

In 1953 the Corporation Articles were amended and the name was changed to "Pioneer Mutual Insurance Assoc-iation." In 1973 the officers are Howard Williams, Ollie, Iowa, President; John Newman, Agency, Iowa, Vice-President; William Werning, Keota, Iowa, Secretary-Treasurer; Ronald Shafer, Keota, Iowa, Assistant Secretary-Treasurer.

The Association is now allowed to operate in Keokuk, Washington, Iowa, Poweshiek, Mahaska, Wapello and Jefferson Counties. In 1972 the Association had $66,112,351 of insurance in force and paid claims totaling $137,124.13.

Pictured is one of the most severe lightning claims handled by the Association. This happened on the Sander McCrabb farm, which is now the Donald Fagen farm. The year of this catastrophe is unknown, but judging by the horses and buggies in the background it happened at about the turn of the century. It would seem by the picture that the neighbors came in with their spades to help bury the animals.



A glimpse into the past...

Incorporation of Keota.

STATE OF IOWA, Keokuk County, ss.

Be it remembered that heretofore, to-wit: On the 26th day of September, A. D., 1873, there was filed in the office of the Clerk of the Circuit Court of Iowa, in and for said county, a petition in the words and figures following:

Keota, Iowa, August 1st, 1873

To the Honorable Circuit Court of Keokuk County: We, the undersigned qualified voters, residing within the district (below bounded) desire to be incorporated under the name of Keota, and hereby petition for authority to call an election for the purpose of deciding whether we will or will not incorporate. (Signed.)

F. M. Smock, J. F. Wilson , et al.


Commencing at S.E. corner of Sec. 24, T. 76, Range 10 W., running thence north 40 rods, thence west 160 rods, thence south 40 rods, thence west 60 rods, thence south 80 rods, thence east 60 rods, thence south 40 rods, thence east 160 rods, thence north 120 rods to place of beginning.

The above petition was granted by Judge L. C. Blanchard at the Nov. term of the District Court of Keokuk county, 1873, and F. M. Israel, J. C. Huskins, F. M. Smock, W. P. Davis and J. S. Kulp were appointed commissioners to hold said election.

Election notices dated Nov. 27, 1873, were posted according to law, calling the election on Dec. 18th, 1873.

The election was held on Dec. 18th, 1873, at which 68 votes were cast for incorporation and 9 votes against incorporation.

Notice of incorporation was published in the Keota Plaindealer, Jan. 1st and 8th, 1874.

Election Notice

There will be a special election held at the drug store of J. S. Kulp in the Town of Keota, Keokuk County, Iowa, on the 18th day of December, 1873, at which said election the polls will be opened at 9 o'clock A.M. and continue open until 6 o'clock P.M. for the purpose of deciding whether said Town of Keota shall be incorporated. All persons wishing to vote in favor of said incorporation, will write or print "for incorporation" and those wishing to vote against said incorporation, will write or print, "against incorporation" on their tickets.

Commissioners: F. M. Smock, J. C. Huskins, F. M. Israel, J. S. Kulp, W. P. Davis.


M. Wightman
Clerk Sigourney, Iowa, Jany. 20th, 1874

To the Town Council of Keota


We inclose herewith a Transcript of all the papers in the matter of the Incorporation of Keota. You can transfer to your Records such portions as you desire, and afterwards return it to the office of the Recorder and have it filed for Record, thereby saving the expense of another transcript.

We have also prepared a second transcript, and will forward the same to the Secretary of State. The Clerks fees
are as follows,

Transcripts (2)                $3.20

Cert. & Seal (2)                 1.00

Postage for 2.                      .30


The Recorder will write you concerning his fees.

Yours Resptly. M. Wightman
Clk .
By Geo. W. Halferty


July 8, 1876. At least 5,000 people attended the Centennial at Keota. The town was gay with bunting. The finance committee has paid every cent of the expenses and has a few dollars left which they will put at interest till the next
Centennial, to form a nest egg for the expenses of the celebration at Keota in 1976.


July 29, 1876. The third story of the Singmaster new brick building will be used as a Masonic Lodge room. (Note: This
building now in 1973, is known as the Lillig building). Under the corner stone, properly sealed, were placed a copy
of The Keota Eagle, a silver quarter and one of J. S. Kulp's Catarrh Remedy circulars.


May 4, 1878. The Farmer's Insurance Association is now ready to do business. On April 27 the following were elected officers; James Lyle, President; J. H. Stouffer, Vice President; S. Correll, Secretary. Committee: John Black, T. P. Stoner, Liberty Township; Wm. Chesney, John Randolph, Lafayette Township.



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A glimpse into the past...


JULY 4, 1876

Address by "Ike" Farley, pioneer Keota citizen and Keota's first attorney. He was admitted to the bar May 2, 1873, shortly after he came to Keota.


1776                         E Pluribus Unum                         1876


A Historical Sketch of Town and Township By


Mr. President-Fellow Citizens:-

In compliance with the recommendations of the Congress of the United States of America, seconded by his excellency, Samuel J. Kirkwood, Governor of the State of Iowa, we have assembled in this beautiful grove, not as citizens of any particular locality, but as citizens of the United States of America, as citizens of one common country. We have left our fields, our workshops, our offices, and places of business to pledge anew our fealty, to that flag, which has protected and supported us in all the peaceful avocations of life at home, and insures protection and respect abroad, and to unite in celebrating this Centennial day which gave our Nation birth.

Therefore in compliance with the recommendation before referred to, we will avoid the usual style of 4th of July Orations, and contribute our might towards making up the history of this great day, by giving to you, to the country and to the world at large an historical sketch of the town of Keota and of Lafayette Township. Lafayette Twp. is situated in the eastern part of Keokuk County, State of Iowa, between parallels 41 and 42 North Latitude; and meridians 92 and 93 Lon. West of Greenwich; its Territory comprises 36 square miles of gently undulating prairie, interspersed with a few groves of native timber; Crooked and Clear creeks furnish stock water and drainage for most part of the township.

The soil is a dark friable loam of an average depth of two feet, underlain with a rich deep subsoil, which renders the productive qualities of the soil of almost infinite durability; and is adapted to the production of all crops usual to this latitude.

The first white settler was Mr. Roe Clemmons, who settled in 1842 in the N. W. part of the township near what is now known as Holsworth's grove. This township though not excelled in Iowa for beauty and fertility of soil, on account of scarcity of timber, was not settled as early as other portions of the county where timber was more abundant. In fact our most beautiful prairies were shunned by early settlers. Inhabitants of today whilst contemplating our broad prairies dotted with neat, commodious dwellings, barns, orchards and artificial groves look back with surprise at the choice of our first settlers. The uninviting features of our Western Prairies reminds me of a poem descriptive of them, which I used to read in my boyhood days. The poem was the production of Josiah D. Channing. I give it as I recollect it:

O, lonesome, windy, grassy place,

Where buffalo and snakes prevail,

The first with dreadful looking face,

the last with dreadful sounding


I'd rather live on Camel Hump

And be a yankee-doodle beggar

Than where I never see a stump,

And shake to death with fever


Fortunately for the settlers of this township owing to its high and dry surface, they were seldom afflicted with malarial diseases, and ague and fever have been almost unknown among our citizens. In 1843 came J. J. Kreamer and J. P. Kreamer and settled on Clear Creek, in the south part of the township. This was prior to the time when the land was put into market. Consequently settlers at that time were known as "squatters."

In March, 1855, this township was organized according to law, and the first election of officers was held in pursuance thereof. The township then contained about 50 souls, of all ages and sex. Female suffrage not having been adopted the number of voters did not exceed one dozen and as a result of the election each voter in the township found himself elected to an office, some filling two and three offices, thus verifying the assertion of the boy who wrote to his father to come out here, as this was the best place in America for a mean man to get office.

The land in this township had previously been entered by speculators, (a greatest obstacle to the settlement of a new country), they holding their land till such time as the toil and improvement of the bona-fide settlers shall have enhanced the value of their land five or ten or twenty dollars per acre. But the few settlers of this township, being of a literary turn of mind, made the important discovery that educational facilities were the paramount object in the settlement of a new country, consequently set themselves to work, levying enormous taxes upon the lands of speculators for school purposes. This course soon brought the speculators' lands into market, and erected neat and commodious schoolhouses upon each four sections of land in the township.

Six of the first settlers, to-wit: The Kramers, Newton, Gilbert, Keeley and Carris, now live upon the land they first entered. At the breaking out of the War of the Rebellion, this township comprised about 200 souls. Twenty-one of their sons voluntarily left their prairie homes, and placed themselves in front in the great struggle to preserve and maintain the right to celebrate this great day. Of this gallant few, not a white feather was ever seen sticking even to the shirts of their garments. Of these, seven sacrificed their lives upon the sacred altar of liberty. Seven hearthstones in this prairie township made desolate, and draped in gloom for the loved ones who should return no more. Fourteen of the number through the blessing of a kind Providence, after having done their whole duty, returned to the anxious, tender and loving embrace of home— not demoralized by Army vices, but nobler still for the noble cause in which they had been engaged.



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A glimpse into the past...

And now we give this brief summary of Lafayette township: 1855 finds a scattered settlement of 50 souls, with but a few acres in cultivation, near 100 miles from any market, deprived almost entirely of the luxuries of life, yet blessed with health and a fixed determination to carve out of this prairie wilderness homes for themselves and their posterity. Behold the transformation! Pass over a period of 20 years, and Lafayette township has a population of over two thousand souls. Nearly every rod of her broad acres brought into cultivation by the husbandman, yielding a rich abundance as the reward of intelligent labor. On every hand are seen beautiful groves, neat farm houses, commodious barns, trees and vines bending with their burden of luscious fruits, well worked highways, and scores of miles of living hedge. Within its borders are two busy flourishing towns, through which plows the iron horse bearing its immense train of the commodities and luxuries of all parts of the globe to their very doors, also furnishing a market for the immense surplus of wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley, horses, cattle, hogs, and various other productions ofthis thriving people. Where 20 years ago a long weary horseback ride was the quickest method of communicating intelligence with other parts of the country, now the telegraph wire flashes its message of business, love, hate and of hope and disappointment with the rapidity of lightning, and when the British lion roars, or Russian bear growls, or the Sultan fumes, or Bismarck scowls, the next hour the shrewd farmer has calculated the chances of a European war, and has raised the price of his corn, wheat, hogs, etc., accordingly. Where 20 years ago farmers' wives and daughters made music with the spinning wheel, harmony sweet now swells from the piano, organ and guitar, brought out by the jeweled fingers of the fair dames and daughters of this prairie. Where 20 years ago the lumbering wagon and saddle were the only means of travel among our early settlers, today the light buggy, the elegant barouche and magnificent carriage, with their costly trappings, are used by these people who have so richly earned them.

I must leave the pleasant contemplation of this scene of real beauty and thrift, and ask your attention to the more immediate subject of my sketch, the Town of Keota.

Keota is located on the eastern border of Lafayette Township, on the divide between Skunk River on the south and English River on the north, surrounded by as fertile prairie as the sun ever shone upon, which being occupied by an intelligent class of farmers, affords to Keota a business support excelled by none, and equaled by few inland towns in this or any other state in the Union. The Oskaloosa branch of the C.R.I. & P.R.R. passes through the town on a line due east and west, thus avoiding the obtuse and acute angles so often seen in the business part of our R.R. towns.

Keota was originally laid out by Messrs. Achard and Yerger of Sigourney, some time in January, 1872. The present limits of Keota are 3/4 of a mile east and west, and 1/2 mile north and south. The first money paid for farm produce was by F. H. Farley, for corn, in January, 1872. The first building erected was a drug store by J. S. Kulp, commenced Feb. 14th, 1872, and is still occupied by Mr. Kulp for the same business. About the same time M. Maurer erected the first dwelling, soon followed by first general merchandise store of Henkle, Littler & Co., said firm still continuing business in the same stand, though much enlarged.

The town was incorporated December 1873, J. S. Kulp being chosen first mayor. Keota Independent School District was organized August 1873, without schoolhouse, school fund or other school facilities. December following they had completed a magnificent school building, with two schools, capable of accommodating 125 scholars. At present, we have four schools capable of accommodating 250 scholars which is not more than the present number of scholars resident in the town. Our schools have been under the superintendance of Professor C. G. Glenn, whose administration has been marked with such success that our school, though young, takes rank with the first in the country.

The first church organization was the Presbyterian, under the charge of Rev. D. V. Smock, who erected the first place of worship, called Smock's Hall. This society is in a flourishing condition, having since built a handsome church, at a cost of $4000, and paid for it. The Baptists, Methodists and United Presbyterians have each built beautiful temples of worship, at an aggregate cost of $12,000. These societies are increasing rapidly in membership, and are out of debt. Rev. D. V. Smock has been the only minister in charge of the Presbyterian society.

Rev. Tracy is the present minister in charge of the Baptist society, Rev. Davis of the Methodist society, and Rev. Barnes of the U. P. society. These different societies successfully control a membership of over 300 Sabbath school pupils.

The Keota post office was established in March 1872, Hon. J. F. Wilson being appointed P. M. and has held and acceptably discharged the duties of said office, to the present time, and if a vote of the people of Keota could decide the matter, Uncle Johnny would be delivering mail to the centennials in 1976. Uncle Johnny's salary for the first four months was one dollar per month. His salary for the year ending July 1st, 1876, is over $900. Perhaps these postal items will as well illustrate the unprecedented growth of the town and county, as any other facts. This office was made a money order office July 1st, 1874. On the 7th day of the same month the first money order was issued through this office by Isaac Toman, Richland, Iowa, to C. W. Stephens, Chicago. Within the short space of two years the number of orders has exceeded 2500, and during the month last past, over $2250 has been thus transmitted.

Of fraternal societies we have two. Enterprise Lodge I.O.O.F. of Talleyrand was, on the 28th day of September, 1872, removed to Keota. This lodge is in a flourishing condition, having a membership of 68. Present officers J. H. Stauffer, N. G.; J. S. Kulp, V. G.; D. McFarlane, Treas.; H. P. Newton, Sec.

Adelphi Lodge No. 353, A. F. & A. M., was organized under dispensation, July 3rd, 1875. Number of charter members, 18. Charter granted by Grand Lodge of Iowa, June 6th, 1876. Present membership, 33. Present officers: Isaac Farley, W. M.; H. P. Newton, S. W.; D. McFarlane, J. W.; E. Moses, Treas.; E. M. Ritchey, Sec. This young lodge is in a healthy working condition, composed of true and noble "Fraters."



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A glimpse into the past...

The first resident physician of Keota was Dr. McFarlane, soon followed by Drs. R. S. Brice, T. B. McWilliams, F. B. Home, and J. C. Hunter, all of whom are gentlemen of ability, and an honor to the profession. With the exception of Dr. McWilliams, who has sought more lucrative fields of labor, these gentlemen retain their practice here. This shows well for the ability of our medical men, and the health of our city. Whereas five were needed in our first year, now only four are required to keep the people well.

Your humble servant has the honor of being the first attorney in Keota, establishing a law office in said town July 1st, 1873, and though the people of this city seldom quarrel, and always pay their debts, he has been able by close application to business and strict integrity, to gain a comfortable living and pay office rent. J. B. Irwin also established a law office in this city in the fall of 1874, and has done, and is yet doing, a lucrative business, by exhibiting those rare virtues so common to attorneys, and beautifully illustrated in the history of G. W. and his little hatchet 100 years ago.

Prof. J. R. Dunham, first professor of music, located in this city in 1873. After a short experience in mercantile business, turned his whole attention to his profession, with great success as a teacher in instrumental and vocal music.

The first newspaper printed in Keota was the "Keota Plaindealer," in 1873, edited by O. H. Woods, which, after a sanguinary struggle for life for about six months finally passed into the hands of S. C. Bruce under the cognomen of "Keota Courier," and while attempting to curry the people of this place, curried itself to death, and sought, with its editor, other parts where both might be better appreciated. About Jan. 1st, 1876, G. C. Miller started the "Keota Eagle," a neat, lively, readable seven column paper. This Eagle soared steadily for about five months, when it was captured by Messrs. Wells & Reed, two gentlemen of means and ability. Its present editor, Mr. G. L. Reed, is the right man in the right place, and their foreman, Mr. S. P. Bailey, is master of the position, as his work will show, from every sentence of the Eagle to the ornamental bill and letter heads, and most exquisite card of the "Beau Monde." The subscription list of The Eagle is now over 500, and we venture the prophecy that, ere the next 4th of July, the Eagle will spread its wings over the happy homes of more than 1000 patrons. In parting with the Eagle we can only say: may its course be onward and upward, and its shadow never grow less.

In 1875 the banking house of Littler, Henkle & Co., and the Keota Loan and Savings Association (F. M. Israel, cashier), were established to meet a demand much felt by our business men. These institutions have well met the demands of our citizens, and have done within the past twelve months, an exchange business of over $900,000. The last named institution is now erecting, at central Broadway and will soon have completed, a magnificent iron front, brick building, which will be a credit to the proprietors and our city.

During the summer of 1875 Messrs. Smith & Hefflefinger completed the Keota Flouring Mills. Mr. Hefflefinger retiring, the firm now stands Smith, Stickley & Smith. These gentlemen are practical millers, and thorough business men. This mill is one of the most thorough and complete flouring mills in the state, having all the improvements of modern science, and a capacity of 100 barrels flour per day, and through the well merited reputation of this mill, the orders to the company compel them to run to full capacity, thus turning out 100 barrels superfine flour each 24 hours, and yet they are only able to partially fill their orders. The business of this mill will amount in the aggregate of $300,000 annually.

In addition to the business above referred to, we have in Keota, four stock dealers, doing an annual business of over $300,000; two grain buyers and shippers with a business of $300,000 annually; one general produce and shipping emporium, doing a business annually of $50,000; one exclusive clothing house, annual sales $25,000; four general merchandise houses, annual sales $160,000; four exclusive grocery houses, annual sales $60,000; one auction store, annual sales $30,000; three drug stores, annual sales $30,000; two hardware stores, annual $25,000; two furniture houses, annual sales $20,000; two lumber yards, annual sales $100,000; two agricultural implement houses, annual sales $45,000, six milliner establishments, annual sales $10,000; one book store, $2000; one jewelry store, annual sales $5000; two hotels, annual receipts $10,000; two boarding houses, annual receipts $4000; three restaurants, annual receipts $9000; one stove and tin shop, annual receipts $10,000; five saloons, receipts $18,000; one tailor shop, $2000; two photograph galleries, annual receipts $4000; one foundry, annual receipts $4000; one planing and turning mill and organ factory, receipts $5000; three blacksmiths shops, $15,000; three wagon shops, $15,000; three harness shops, $20,000; two shoe stores and shops, $15,000; two barber shops, $2000; two meat markets, annual receipts, $26,000; three livery stables, annual receipts $21,000; five carpenter shops, $8000; one cooper shop, receipts $1000; two nurserymen, $9000; one bakery, receipts unknown. Thus showing a total business transaction annually, by our commerical and mechanic firms of over two million dollars. Add to this the proceeds of the different professions, and it will swell the sum to near two and a quarter millions of dollars. We would remark right here that instead of the foregoing being an overdrawn picture of the business transactions of our young city, the statements are rather under the real amounts, as we have taken most of the estimates from the sale books of the parties concerned. No person acquainted with our city will say that I have represented any business that does not exist here. Yet if asked to guess the number of business firms in the town oldest citizens would not put them higher than from 40 to 50 at most, yet as the foregoing will show, 95 such firms exist, and transact business in our town.

As a further proof of the great amount of business transactions at this place, I have but to refer you to the statistics of shippings to and from this point, for one year, as kindly furnished by our gentlemanly Station Agent, J. T. Webber. This list comprises only that shipped as freight, not including express shipments, which class was simply enormous. The following gives the number of cars of freight to and disbursed at this point, each car received averaging 22,000 lbs. for the year ending April 30th, 1876:



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Keota Centennial Committee

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