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The Keosauqua Republican
Keosauqua, Van Buren, Iowa
May 3, 1883

Questions for State Certificates

     The following list of questions (with the exception of Algebra) which we omit because of difficult work to put it into type) is the course required in the last March examinations for State Certificates, held at Burlington and Des Moines. They will be of deep interest to most of our patrons. For life diplomas a number of other branches, besides these here given, must be passed by applicants.


     1. Read carefully all the rules.
     2. Place upon each piece of paper passed by the person conducting the examination, your number, as given you at the beginning of the examination...
     3. Use only the paper furnished you, and write upon but one side of the same, and that the side with the ruled margin.
     4. Read carefully the questions, and in case duplicate questions are presented under the same number, "select one," as in no case will credit be given for both.
     5. Place in the margin the number of the question answered, leaving the space of one line below your answers. Your answers need not be consecutive in the order of the questions, if you desire to answer first those which seem easiest to you, provided the number of the question answered be placed distinctly in the margin.
     6. In all mathematical work let the full process appear, since more attention will be given to correct processes than to correct results, the answer being placed in the margin under the number. Paper will be furnished...[can't read line]...each solution be copied as soon as completed.
     7. At the expiration of the time allotted for the subject, you will pass our paper promptly to the examiner without folding or creasing in any manner.
     8. Ask no questions of examiners during the progress of the examination. Do not leave your seat until the  close of the hour for examination.
     9. Let all things be done decently and in order.

Time, Forty-Five Minutes.

     1. Who is Vice-President of the United States? Who is Speaker of the House? Who is Chief Justice? Give the name of the President's Cabinet.
     2. What was the Credit Mobilier? In what way did it affect American politics?
     3. Which of the thirteen original colonies was largely settled for released prisoners for debt? Who was the author of that mode of settlement?
     4. Where was Washington first inaugurated, and who administered the oath of office? Why was not the oath administered by the Chief Justice of the United States?
     5. Name five important events in Andrew Jackson's Administration.
     6. With what foreign power did our country form the first treaty? who was the American diplomatist?
     7. Who was Owen Lovejoy? Narrate the circumstances of his death.
     8. What led to the court-martial of General Fitz John Porter? What was the result of the trial?
     9. In whose administration as the first Pacific railroad completed?
     10. Explain the government and system in support of the public schools in many states of the Union.

Time, One Hour

     1. Begin with Maine and name all the States and Territories bordering on the British possessions, and name capitals of each.
     2. Locate Savannah, Glasgow, Tokio, Timbuctoo, Madras, Sitka, Santiago and Vera Cruz.
     3. Take a cargo from Natchez to Odessa and name all the bodies of water over which you would have to pass.
     4. Name the Republics of Europe.
     5. Locate the penitentiaries, asylums, reform schools and educational institutions in Iowa under State control.
     6. Name all the railroads that traverse the State of Iowa from east to west, and the cities at both the eastern and western ends of each, in the State.
     7. Trade winds. What are they, where are they, and how caused?
     8. Where are the best anthracites coal fields in the United States? Where are the best lead deposits? Where are the best marble quarries?
     9. Locate the great volcanic girdle of the world, and give the reason for the intense volcanic activity in the regions of the East and West Indies.
     10. Name and locate the prominent mountain ranges of Europe.

Time, One-half Hour

     1. Form the principles of some system
     2. Form all the letters one space in height and mark the principles.
     3. Form the letters two spaces in height, and the looped letters.
     4. Illustrate the different "turns"
     5. Describe the position of the body, feet, arms and pen-holding in writing.
     6. Illustrate "slant" and tell the different "movements."
     7. Form all the capitals which require the "capital stem," the "direct oval," the "reversed oval".
     8. Give a method of "opening, conducting," and "closing" a writing class.
     9. Give some reasons for preferring copy-books for pupils' use.
     10. Tell why teacher should keep books and pens when class is not writing.

Time, Two Hours

     1. Find the G.C.D. of 408 and 1768, by at least two processes, and demonstrate the process by division of the less into the greater.
     2. State and demonstrate a rule for dividing one fraction by another.
     3. Copy the following table. On the line with percentage in the several columns, write the terms thereof. Opposite each of the other subjects in the first column, write under each term in percentage, the corresponding term of that subject.
     Percentage      |___|___|___|___|___|___|
     Profit&Loss    |___|___|___|___|___|___|
     Commission    |___|___|___|___|___|___|
     Interest           |___|___|___|___|___|___|
     True Discount |___|___|___|___|___|___|
     Bank Discount|___|___|___|___|___|___|
     Stocks            |___|___|___|___|___|___|
     Insurance        |___|___|___|___|___|___|
     Exchange          |___|___|___|___|___|___|
     4. Which is the better investment, and how much, one of $4,200, yielding $168, semi-annually, or one of $7,500 producing $712.50 annually?
     5. A and B are partners. A's stock is to B's as 4 to 5, after 3 months A withdraws two-thirds of his and B three-fourth of his; divide their year's gain of $1,675.
     6. Of two pieces of land, the one a circle of 17 rods in diameter, the other a triangle whose hypotenuse is 40 rods  and whose base is 24 rods, which is the larger and by how much?
     7. Write a full synopsis of Ratio and Proportion. Demonstrate the fundamental principles of Proportion.
     8. Name and describe the principle units of the Metric system. Write the table for capacity. Explain the meaning of the prefixes used.
     9. Explain the process of extracting the cube root by one of the two regular modes, indicating the adoption of its class instruction. You can employ 91125 if you need a number which is a power.
     10. Write the general formula of the value of S, arithmetical series and demonstrate it.

Time, Forty-Five Minutes

     1. Describe the manner in which the bones are joined together.
     2. Name and describe the different kinds of joints; give an example of each.
     3. Give a full description of the vertebral column.
     4. Explain the manner in which the character of the blood is changed into the lungs.
     5. What habits impair the power of the lungs?
     6. State what fluids or juices are secreted by the system for the digestion of food, and give the particular one of each.
     7. Describe the liver and state its function.
     8. Locate the diaphragm, describe it and state its function.

Time, One Hour

     1. Describe what your pupils should be able to do in Reading on the Completion of the Second Reader? Of the Third Reader? Of the Fourth Reader? Of the Fifth Reader?
     2. What results should be reached in number lessons at the end of the first year?
     3. Explain your treatment of fractions when teaching pupils just entering upon the subject.
     4. Discuss this principle  called selectivity in pupils. What is violated and when maintained?
     5. What principles underlie the art of questioning?
     6. Indicate the development by inductive teaching of some rule of arithmetic, as that of "pointing off" in the multiplication of  decimals.
     7. What faculties does a well devised system of Object Lessons tend to develop and discipline?
     8. Describe the features of a well-conducted recitation in Geography, grammar grade.
     9. What are the names of the usual grades in a city school system? Indicate the work in Arithmetic to be done in each grade.
     10. What elements in the character and policy of the teacher will produce good government?

Time [cannot read]

     1. Describe the conditions and qualities of a person educated up to your ideal standard.
     2. Enumerate the forces or agencies that mould and educate the human being.
     3. Which division of education belongs particularly to the schools. Give your reasons.
     4. Write a few lines concisely explaining and defining teaching.
     5. What is knowledge? Give an extended answer.
     6. In what way does memory differ from knowing? In what divisions of knowledge does simple memory constitute complete knowing?
     7. What condition in the intellect and feelings of a pupil involving his efforts to acquire knowledge should you induce and maintain during study and recitation?
     8. What is the meaning and application of the term "Method" as used by writers on Didactics?
     9. Discuss the two distinctive methods of intellectual movement by which the learner acquires knowledge.
     10. [Cannot read this question.]

Time Forty Minutes

     1. Put into proper shape as to punctuation, capitals and versification the following:
     to be or not to be that is the question whether the nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune or to take arms against a sea of trouble and by opposing end them to die the sleep no more and by a sleep to say we end the heart ache and the thousand natural shocks that flesh is heir to tis a consumation devoutly to be wished to die to sleep to sleep perchance to dream aye there's the rub for in that sleep of death what dreams may come when we have shuffled off this mortal coil.
     2. What rule in Orthography (or rules, if more than one) will apply to each of the following words: "Conferring," "Chargeable," Robbed," Flies," Dying," Dyeing," Refusal," Immovable."
     3. What rules are violated in the following: "Truely," 'Monkies,' "Benefitted," "Denyal."

Time Forty Minutes

     1. What is the advantage of much practice in reading?    
     2. Mention three rules that should be observed in teaching reading to advanced classes.
     3. What attention should be given to this subject in other than the reading lessons?
     4. What are your methods of securing natural tones, and proper delivery?
     5. Mention any rules that apply to inflection.
     6. What is the design of punctuation?
     7. How do you use the dictionary in connection with reading classes?
     7. What constitutes a good reader?
     8. What is your method of teaching beginners?
     9. To what extent should supplementary or home reading be required of the pupil?
     10. Do you ever require your pupils to commit to memory passages upon which they are to be exercised, and drilled? If so for what reason?

Time, One Hour

     1. Define Syntax, analysis, punctuation, diagram, modifier.
     2. Write the possessive plural of the following words: "man," he", "it," "house", "Charles."
     3. Write a simple sentence containing not less than six different parts of speech.
     4. Show by example the difference between a complex and a compound sentence.
     5. What has dependent clauses? Give three examples of dependent clauses.
     6. Parse "this," "which," and "to accomplish" in the sentence: this is the work which I desire to accomplish.
     7. Analyze or diagram the following sentence, and parse the words quoted: Photography is the art which enables "common place" mediocrity to look like "genius"
     8. Correct in full the following expressions: "I haint had no dinner nor drunk no water for a week and haint saw a table sot us it had ought to be since we come here." " I was setting by the river when they telled me." "We broke up the setting hen and eat her eggs." "I knowed that it was so for I seen him when he done it." These sort of expressions should be avoided." "Try and recite the lesson perfectly" "Two men will be tried for crimes in this town which are punishable with death if a full court should attend."
     9. Analyze or diagram the following:
     "When thoughts
     Of the last bitter hour came like a blight
     Over thy spirit and sad images
     Of the stern agony and shroud and pall,
     And breathes darkness out the narrow house,
     Take there to shudder, and grow sick at heart,-
     Go forth under the open sky and list
     To nature's teachings."
     10. In the above sentence, parse the words, "when," "list," "house."


     1. Define single and double entry.
     2. What are representative accounts and why are they so called?
     2. Give rule for journaling.
     3. What is a Trial Balance and for what is it intended?
     4. Describe the manner of closing a ledger.
     5. Make a bill for the following goods and receipt it properly: Sold James McFarland 28 yards of prints at 16.23 cents, 85 lbs of ????? sugar at 10.32 cents, 21 lbs. "A" sugar at 12 1.2 cents; 16 lbs butter at 28 cents; 8 gals. maple syrup at 90 cents.
     6. Write a negotiable note due in nine months.
     7. What are speculative accounts? What is shown by debtor and credit sides?
     8. What is the province of the journal and how may it be dispensed with?
     9..10. Commenced business with cash on hand, $6,000; Mdsc., $4,000; bills receivable, $800

Time, Forty-Five Minutes

     1. Name the different ways in which leaves may be classified.
     2. Define symmetrical flower, complete flower, essential organs, protecting organs.
     3. Describe the manner in which plants obtain nutriment.
     4. How are plants propagated or multiplied in numbers?
     5. Describe the ovary, the ovnie, the the pistil.
     6. Define classification. Tell how plants are classified.
     7. What is a simple fruit? How are simple fruits classified?
     8. Give a full description of an apple or bean, tell the kind of fruit, and classify the plant which produces it.

Time, One Hour

     1. In case of a failure in the electoral college to choose a President and Vice-President, state fully by what bodies and by what vote each is chosen.
     2. How may a bill become a law without the signature of the President?
     3. Name five specified powers of Congress and five specified powers prohibited to the states.
     4. What is "the writ of habeas corpus" and when may its privileges be suspended?
     5. State two methods of proposing Amendments to the Constitution of the United States.
     6. State the difference between "original and appellate jurisdiction."
     7. Name the three powers of the government, to what offices each is vested, and by whom and for what periods such officers are chosen.
     8. [cannot read question.]
     9. Distinction between States and Territories.
     10. Nature of the "Missouri Compromise" and the occasion of its repeal.

Time, Forty-Five Minutes.

     1. What is the title of the presiding officer of the Senate? How is he chosen?
     2. What is the title of the presiding officer of the House? How is he chosen?
     3. What restriction does the Constitution make regarding dueling?
     4. Give the names of the State officers, and the office each fills.
     5. Can private property be taken for public use without compensation? Explain.
     6. [cannot read question]
     7. When does a law passed by the General Assembly take effect?
     8. Does the State give pecuniary aid to county Agricultural Societies? Explain.
     9. In what respect do the functions of the District Courts differ from those of the Circuit Courts?
     10. How can the Constitution be amended? Give the process.

Time, Forty-Five Minutes.

     1. Develop a straight line and draw four pictures or designs upon it.
     2. Develop curves, single and double, and draw four designs containing them and straight lines.
     3. Draw five designs of fruit or vegetables.
     4. Draw a hat, a knife, a basket, a book.
     5. Develop the ellipse and draw three designs upon it.
     6. Draw a square and fix diagonals; draw the square in perspective and show how to find the center.
     7. Draw a figure and locate horizon line, vanishing point, point of sight, [cannot read line], point of distance, and base line.
     8. Draw three cubes in perspective below the horizon line, one directly on the line of view, one to the right and one to the left of it.
     9. Locate three windows in the perspective side of a building-as a school house.
     10. What parts of a picture are shaded?

Time, One Hour

     1. What is molecular force? Give examples of the different kinds.
     2. Which travels the faster, sound at a high pitch or sound at low pitch?
     3. Show that perpetual motion is impossible.
     4. The temperature of water at 60 degrees (Farh.) is reduced to 32 degrees; did it expand or contract? Explain.
     5. Explain why barometer falls when the thermometer rises, and vice versa.
     6. Will a ship carry a heavier cargo in salt water or in fresh water? Why?
     7. What is the solar spectrum? Upon what does the color of light depend?
     8. Why does a receding object appear to become smaller?
     9. What is the velocity of light and how was it first ascertained?
     10. Show the impenetrability of air, using the diving bell as an illustration.


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