OTHER INDIAN CHIEFS OF
CHIEFS AND COUNCILS
The Indians could neither write nor
print as we do today and did not, therefore, have laws written down
in big books. But they needed laws just as we do because sometimes
several thousand Indians would gather in one village. Then they had
to make rules for themselves. Disputes between members of the tribe
also had to be settled by someone. Who has to do it?
SAC AND FOX CHIEFS
You have read the story of two of the
greatest chiefs that lived in Iowa. There were many others who were
famous that lived, at least for a time, in Iowa. Pashepaho, "the
stabber," was a much older chief than either Black Hawk or Keokuk.
He had more power than either of them and was a famous fighter.
He signed the treaties of the 1824 and 1832 by which the Sac lands
were sold to the Government. He died at an old age in Kansas.
Wishecomaque, "Hard Fish," became the
chief of Black Hawk's village after a great chief's downfall. His
village was in Wapello County, Where Eddyville now is.
Powashiek, or "Roused Bear," a native
of Iowa, was head chief of the Fox tribe for many years. He was a
very large man, weighing over 250 pounds. He was always friendly
with the white people and was fair and honest with both Indians and
Whites, as also Appanoose, another Sac chief. Counties were named
for both of these Indians.
Wapello, "The Prince," and Kishekosh,
"Man with One Leg," were two other Fox chiefs. Kishekosh really had
two legs, and was a great athlete. He had a farm and tried to get
other Indians to become farmers, but they said that work was only
for squaws and they would not follow their chiefs example. Wapello
was buried near Agency beside his friend, General street, and both a
county and a town have been named for him.
Taimah (Tama), "Man Who Makes The
Rocks Tremble," was a Fox chief of little importance. He made a
trip to Washington in 1824 and signed a treaty for his tribe. He
also has a county and a town named for him.
CHIEFS OF THE IOWA
The most noted chief of the Iowa tribe
was Mahaska, or "White Cloud." The favorite one of his seven wives
was a beautiful woman named Ranchewaime, or "Female Flying Pigeon."
She made a trip to Washington with him. When she returned to Iowa,
she told the Women of her tribe how the White women lived. Mahaska
county bears his name.
Mahaska's father, Manhawgaw, "Wounding
Arrow," An Iowa Chief, was killed while on a peaceful visit with
the Sioux Indian tribe. Mahaska at once led a war party against the
Sioux. He killed the Sioux Indian who killed his father.
At another time two Indians of
Mahaska's tribe killed six Omaha Indians. The Government wanted the
two Indian murderer's and Mahaska, being friend of the Government,
let the officers arrest them. After the Indians were released, they
stole up to Mahaska's tepee one night and killed him while he slept.
Then they fled, but were caught and killed, one by the Iowas, and
the other by the Otoes.
Wangewa, "Hard Heart," was chief of an
Iowa village near the Missouri River. He was in more than fifty
battles, and commanded the warriors in seven of them.
We do not know much about the Sioux
chiefs that lived in Iowa. Waneta, who at eighteen years of age
fought with the British in the War of 1812, was on of their best
Sidominadota, and his brother
Inkpadutah, both chiefs of an outlaw band of Sioux, have been called
the worst chiefs that ever lived.