A Narrative History of The People of Iowa


FREDERIC KNIGHT LOGAN, composer, pianist, director, instructor, the Waltz King of America, an eminent musician of international reputation and world-wide renown, was born of Puritanic parentage at Oskaloosa, Iowa, October 15, 1871, at the home of his grandmother, Mrs. Rachael Budd Welsh Knight.  He was the only child of John F. and Virginia Knight Logan.

Bereft of his father when a week child, his birthplace was ever his permanent home.  It was here, with the loving care of his proud mother, grandmother and aunts, Elizabeth A. and Mary E., and devotion of his uncle, William W. Knight, that Frederic Knight Logan, destined to become the world-famed musician, spent his happy childhood and school days.  He received his first musical training from his talented and efficient mother.  He played the piano "by ear" until his fourth year, although his hands and fingers were much too small.  His mother and the grand piano were his confidential friends, and whether the subject was new clothes or what not, whether he was pleased or vexed, they were first consulted.  Between this fond mother and gifted son there always existed that mutual altruistic devotion, of heaven-born worshipful love.

Frederic Knight Logan'a natural disposition was sunny, cheerful and social.  he enjoyed the society of those many years his senior, among whom he had a host of friends.  From boyhood he always found great pleasure with his home folks, entertaining friends by a "spin" in his elegant car, his seven-passenger Cadillac Brougham.  his greatest pleasure and enjoyment in life was in providing every available comfort and happiness for his loved ones in his own charming home, and also for the pleasure of others.  He was fond of recalling with delight the experience "once upon a time," when he was commissioned to act as Santa Claus for the poor little "kiddies" of New York City, and with pride displayed his pictures of same.  Mr. Logan was very found of his pets, the little brown squirrel "Bunny," and his beautiful golden-voiced Hartz Mountain canary; his fine blooded coal-black horse "Nig," better known to his schoolmates as "Black Beauty!" and "Snowball", his great, all white Canadian Maltese cat.  The last two named he had trained to perform many tricks, including shaking hands.

From early childhood Mr. Logan was conscientiously religious and devoted to Sunday School, and possessed a sincere respect and reverence for the teachings of the Gospel.  At an early age he united with the First Presbyterian Church, and retained his membership throughout his life.  His never failing trustfulness and patience were always markedly manifest during his last illness, fraught as it was with great disappointment in being obliged to relinquish many of his best works, leaving them unfinished, and knowing that many cherished hopes and plans, reaching far into the future, would be unrealized.  But, with it all he never faltered, was never reproachful, and never lost an opportunity to express his sincere gratitude to his Heavenly Father for his blessings for his neverfailing but always clear mentality, ever tenaciously strong, quick and logical; and for his memory, which was supremely retentive and even miraculously keen.

Mr. Logan's mother, being a firm believer in travel as a must expedient incentive to educational advancement for her child, made it her practice during his school vacation to take her manly, businesslike little son with her as companion, counselor and escort whether to entertainments or on journeys.  Even while yet a lad in knee pants he accompanied his mother on her concert tours, as her piano accompanist, and frequently sang with her in duets, his voice being then very high and remarkably pure and flexible, blending perfectly with her highly cultivated voice.

Before his school days had ended Frederic Knight Logan, in company with his mother and grandmother Knight, had visited the principal cities and various points of interest from Des Moines, Iowa, to New York City; and also in Canada, from Hamilton, through Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal down the picturesque Saint Lawrence River, and through the Lachine Rapids, to quaint old historical Quebec, and there visited the imposing monument erected to the memory of the noted English general, James Wolfe.

An episode that occurred in Mr. Logan's babyhood days, of which he was fond of relating, was when he attended with his mother a grand concert given by the celebrated violinist, Camila Urso, at his home town.  It was his first real impression of and meeting with a noted artist other than his mother.  He listened with bated breath to the classic numbers on the program of the wonderful artist, holding his mother's hand, pressing it tightly, all the time whispering "beautiful, beautiful."  During an intermission, while his mother was engaged in conversation with friends, young Frederic slipped away from her and toddled off to the stage and up behind the scenes, and when his mother found him, to her astonishment he was in the arms of the great violinist, who was lavishing all the praise and honor she could have given to her own child upon him.  Turning to his mother, she said:  "The baby is truly a musical child, else he would not have come to me."  and she caressed him again.

He was a great lover of flowers, plant life and geology, and during his high-school days was an active member of the Iowa Chapter of the American Agassiz Association.  he exemplified extraordinary talent and ability in freehand drawing and painting in oil when a student under Miss Bailey of Penn College, of which college Dr. A. Rosenberger was president, and of whom, as his friend, Mr. Logan always spoke in highest terms, with pride and esteem, as he did, also, when speaking of Dr. J. L. Brasher, president of John Fletcher College, whom he regarded as a close friend.

Following Mr. Logan's course in the Oskaloosa High School, then under Supt. Homer H. Seerly, with Col. A. W. Swalm and J. W. Johnson, prominent editors on the school board, he was graduated from the Howe Business College, becoming an expert stenographer and typist, and as such holding many important positions with members of the legal profession, including Judge R. W. Preston and W. G. Jones; with the County Board Supervisors; with the railroad company, and for the Spencer Wholesale Company.  When special concessions were offered him by the Chicago College of Music to enter upon a course in music he lost no time in accepting same, since that was his heart's desire.  As this was the school his mother had attended, under Doctor Ziegfeld, she was naturally very anxious that her son should take advantage of the great opportunity.  Soon thereafter Mr. Logan, then a lad of sixteen years, entered upon his musical studies, and a little later his uncle, Alexander Stone, editor of the Peoria Transcript and postmaster of Peoria, Illinois, came to Chicago on business, and as an old acquaintance of Mr. Cooper of the Chicago firm of Siegel & Cooper, went to call upon him, taking Frederic with him.  By way of introducing him casually he spoke of him as an expert stenographer and typist.  Mr. Cooper thereupon asked Frederic to take a dictation upon the typewriter.  Frederic was at ease and perfectly at home there, and gave proof of his wonderful speed.  Mr. Cooper exclaimed:  "Judging from the manner in which you handle the keys, you play the piano, do you not?"  Mr. Cooper at once offered him the position of private secretary to him and Mr. Siegel, at a good salary.  He accepted it, and his usefulness and popularity with the firm was very manifest in many ways.  Two evenings a week he was regularly engaged as pianist by the most exclusive clubs in the city.  He was thereby enabled to defray his expenses and pursue his musical studies.

Both Frederic Knight Logan and his mother, Virginia Knight Logan, who was the first instructor of vice with the L. G. Gottschalk Lyric School, resided at the Maison du Lac, a very exclusive private hotel, only a few steps from the Auditorium Annex.  There, with his piano in his room.  Mr. Logan devoted all available time to its study.  this hotel was managed by the mother of the now famous violinist Albert Spaulding.  It was there that Mr. Logan had the rare opportunity of meeting and sitting at the table with many distinguished artists, such as Sarah Bernhardt, Salvini, Countess Corneau, melba, the world-renowned "Dreamer" pianist Leopoid Gowdowski, Pietro Maseagni, Leon Cavello, composer of "I Pagliacci," and many others, to whom he was personally introduced as "a very talented, promising student of music."  hence, he was honored with special introductions to their performances.  Subsequently he met and accompanied many grand opera artists for concert and coaching, among whom were:  Rosa Raisa Tomaki Miura, Edith Mason, Cyrena Van Gordon, Caruso, Scotti, Sembrich, mantelli, Calvi, Van Hoose, Schumann Heink, Schipa, Mojica, and others.  Once, while listening upon personal invitation to Mascagni as he played on the organ the "Intermezzo": of his grand opera "Cavelleria Rusticana,"  Frederic, standing close to the artist, as the last tones died away quietly took hold of the wonderful artist's coat, just so he could know that he had really been that close to the wonderful Mascagni while he played.

Mr. Logan's compositions are regularly used by the great artists.  Being frugal and always strictly abstemious in his habits, and never afraid to say "no" when the occasion demanded it, and being always dependable, Mr. Logan won the honor, respect and confidence of his employers, associates and of the general public.  At three different times, assisting his grandmother Knight from his own earned savings, he rescued the old home from financial embarrassment.

Frederic Knight Logan's entire musical education was received in this country under the mot prominent teachers of Chicago and New York City, and finished under the tutelage of August Hyllested, who was a concert pianist, and a great favorite of Liszt, Kullak and Grieg.  he also studied with Wilhelm Middleschulte.

Having the wonderful gift of an adept improviser on the piano, Mr. Logan early turned to serious composition, and as constant companions Frederic Knight Logan and his mother, Virginia Knight Logan, both richly endowed by that devine kindred inheritance, soon became co-workers, he as composer-pianist and she as author of his song poems.  Thereby they became known throughout the music world and profession as the only "Mother and Son" collaborators.  Through the merit of their works they were elected to, and maintained membership with , the exclusive American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers of New York City.

As a composer of music Frederic Knight Logan, with his thorough musical training, keen conception and incorruptible heart, found and grasped the great psychological Master Key, to the colorful rhythm emanating from the should of melody in the divine laws of the harmony of the universe, the vibrancy of which dominates his every composition.  His works have gone around the world, and are used by musicians in every land.  It is no uncommon thing to hear them over the radio.  His "Missouri Waltz" was used for silent drill during the World war at the various military camps.  In the last moment in the life of the much-esteemed American military officer, of highest rank, the late Major General Frederick Fuston, at Camp Fort Sam Houston, Texas, he requested his musicians to play for him his favorite piece, the "Missouri Waltz," which was played very softly and with great expression.  This was regarded by Mr. Logan and all his friends as a most distinctive mark of honor.  This same composition was so admired by Queen Mary of England that she ordered it programmed and played by her private orchestra at her most exclusive salon receptions.  In acknowledgment of this honor a special copy of the "Missouri Waltz" was printed in gold type, on an extra quality of paper, and with the compliments of Mr. Logan and his publisher, F. J. A. Forster, it was sent to the Queen.  In return a most royally written acknowledgment was received from her Majesty.  Mr. Logan's love of his country, and pride for his native state, Iowa, prompted him to compose a song, "Iowa, Proud Iowa." which as soon as it was published was at once adopted by the Iowa Division of the American Legion, under Maj. Hanford McNider, as their official state song.  As such it was adopted also by the Iowa Federation of Woman's Clubs, and ordered to be regularly included on their programs, and to be sung at all their meetings as the Iowa State Song.  Many other clubs and societies also adopted it as their state song.  "Iowa, Proud Iowa," an original composition with appropriate words, and by a native-born Iowan, an elector and freeholder in Iowa, and an accredited musician of international reputation, renders it, logically and altruistically, the most appropriate state song for Iowa.

Frederic Knight Logan had caught the weird, alluring strains underlying the dreamy themes of the waltz, as portrayed in his "Valse Chopinesque,"  "Cheiro Waltz,"  The latter being used by special permission from Mr. Logan by the famous palmist Cheiro on his programs in foreign lands.  Other waltz numbers are:  "The Moonlight Waltz,"  "Blue Rose Waltz,"  "Military Waltz,"  "Through the Night," and countless others, the popularity of which won for Mr. Logan the encomium "The Waltz King of America."  As a composer, dreaming as he did the loveliness of "Pale Moon," an American Indian love song; "Through Azure Blue,"  "Lift Thine Eyes,"  "E'en as the Flower,"  "A Little Room Within My Heart,"  "Fallen Leaf,"  an American love lyric, "Wishing That Dreams Would Come True,"  "I Love You,"  "My Heart's Desire,"  "Rose of My Heart,"  "A Song for You and Me,"  "But Why,"  "In Fancy's Bower,"  "Nocturne,"  "Italian Vespers,"  "Russian Lullaby,"  "In Dreamy Sevilla," waltz song;  "In a Brahman Garden,"  song cycle; "Supplication,"  sacred;  "Iowa, Proud Iowa,"  "Song Miniatures,"  four beautiful songs;  "Star Blossoms,"  "My Orient Rose,"  "Because God Gives Me You,"  a mother song; "Meditation,"  "Purple Heather,"  "Princesita,"  "Killarney, My Home O'er the Sea,"  "Enchanted Isle," four East Indian songs, "Pleading,"  "Summer Showers,"  "Pipes of Pan," a mythical pastoral suite,  "Sons of Cupid,"  seven love songs,  "O Vision Fair,"  "At Twilight,"  "Sylvia,"  "Water Sprites,"  "Dear Little Heart,"  lullaby,  "My Evening star,"  "WillO' The Wisp."  "Four Castillian Sketches," suite "Espagnole,"  "Tea Cup Tinkles,"  "Sweet Rose of yesterday,"  "Over the Hills,"  and innumerable other outstanding compositions, and many in preparation.  "Over the Hills" was the last composition published by Mr. Logan.  "Erilinda," a legend of the moon, a dramatic composition of Mr. Logan, as a prime favorite of the great Caruso, who included it on his programs, and sang it, with great success, with the interpretation as personally coached by Mr. Logan.  At Portland, Oregon, during the pageant of their annual "Rose Festival" in June, 1928, Mr. Logan's "Pale Moon" was sung by a grand chorus of over 500 voices.  Mrs. W. H. Keating, of Oskaloosa, Iowa, was present, and pronounced it the crowning event, musically, of the festival.

As a pianist Frederic Knight Logan, although young in years, being an expert sight-reader of music and thoroughly trained, won an enviable reputation, ranking among the foremost in Chicago, New York City and other principal cities of the United States and Canada.  He was very popular as a concert pianist and filled many exclusive private engagements, and, also, for the most prominent clubs.  With pride he recalled a very rare and pleasant afternoon when, upon special invitation, he called upon the mother of President McKinley at her home in Canton, Ohio, whom he entertained with piano selections, and how, at parting, that elegant lady requested that when he was in Washington he should be sure to call upon her son William and tell him of their very pleasant visit together.  Mr. Logan's professional engagement soon thereafter took him to the national capital, and he compiled with the mother's request, visited the President and delighted him by repeating her very words to him.  It is well known as a matter of history that President McKinley was devoted to his mother.  At the time Mr. Logan was sure that he was one of the few young Americans to call the President of the United States by his first name to his face.  Although many distinguished members of the diplomatic corps were waiting to see the President, he invited Mr. Logan to take a seat and the two enjoyed a fine little visit.  Since that time Mr. Logan, with his artistic and natural political tendencies, took advantage of opportunities, as they offered themselves, to meet and converse with each of the Presidents of his party, namely:  Roosevelt, Taft and Harding, and he had already had the privilege of meeting President Harrison.

Frederic Knight Logan's first professional stage experience was in a speaking part with the noted Maxine Elliott and Nat Goodwin.  Early in his professional career his first engagement as musical director was with the David Henderson productions.  In a short time his work received recognition from Jefferson de Angelis, who engaged him for his opera company, then playing in New York City, as assistant musical director and coach, and later he became the regular conductor.  Subsequently he was engaged for the Montgomery & Stone production of the :"Wizard of Oz." and made his debut as musical director at the Montauk Theatre, Brooklyn, New York.  The following season Mr. Logan was appointed director by David Belasco, and place to conduct the orchestra for the Mrs. Leslie Carter plays at the Belasco Theatre, New York City, and also on tour.  His success with Mr. Belasco gained him recognition with Charles Frohman, with whom he was connected for several years as musical director, traveling with Maude Adams, from coast to coast, in her repertoire, including "The Little Minister,"  "L'Aiglon,"  "Quality Street,"  and her marvelous production of "Peter Pan."  Mr. Logan was one of the very few visiting directors who ever conducted at the Empire Theatre, New York City.

Under Mr. Logan's engagements in New York, under Belasco and Frohman, it was his rare privilege to study composition and conducting under the personal direction of the noted musicians Louis F. Gottschalk, William T. Francis, William Furst and Theodore Bendix.  Mr. Logan was musical director with Chauncey Olcott, for whom he composed the incidental music for his plays for several seasons.  His return engagements as the musical director were ever hailed as a feature.

Having conducted for the greatest artists in every prominent city in the United States and Canada, Mr. Logan became one of the most known and most popular musicians in the country.  his work and versatility won for him an enviable world-wide reputation.  John Philip Sousa, the "March King,"  and Frederic Knight Logan, the "Waltz King."  were personal friends.  Frederic Knight Logan not only possessed a wonderful activity, but a most attractive personality and versatility and verve essential to a musician of his class, which, coupled with his thorough knowledge of the fascinating skill of dramatic art, rendered him most successful in all his undertakings.

The demand for the compositions by Frederic Knight Logan increased to such an extent that Mr. Logan felt compelled to devote his available time to composition, and he sought the quiet and restfulness of his attractive home in the West, Oskaloosa, Iowa, where, away from the distractive confusion and bustle of a great city, and together with his mother, Virginia Knight Logan, a finished artist, he opened his work shop, "The Knight-Logan Studio of Musical Art."  A visit to this attractive studio, so befittingly appointed in every detail, leaves a delightful, never-to-be-forgotten memory.  there, with Mr. Logan as composer-pianist, instructor of piano, director of orchestra and ensemble and coach, and Mrs. Logan as writer of song lyrics, teacher of voice, harmony and public-school music, was established a great and happy combination, mother and son, an incomparable alliance.  The wee hours of the night frequently found them in the studio completing some important inspirational theme.

As a successful teacher of the piano Mr. Logan was accorded the highest place.  Conscientious treatment of ground work, based upon Leschetizky Melody and Singing Touch, formed the secret of his artistic results.  Mr. Logan was most unselfish, ever generous and ready to recognize and give credit to merit in others.  He assisted, without price, any talented and deserving indigent pupils.  By his activity, his incessant endeavors to advance in point of poetical ideals and musicianship, and keen practical insight for placing his inspirations within reach of the musical understanding of the general public, this American song composer had arrived at an enviable position of prominence in this particular field.  Backed by an intimate knowledge of the imperishable classic song literature, our present day song writer experienced what may be termed a veritable renaissance of vocal inspiration, in which the teachings of the old masters, the folksong literature of every nation, the teachings of ultra-moderns are employed.  It has been conceded that Frederic Knight Logan did not grasp his success out of the air.  He worked for it.  He earned it.  It did not come to him-he want after it.  He took advantage of opportunities.  Being ambitious, he never allowed an opportunity of worth to pass him by that might enrich his mentality or increase his store of knowledge.  he was gathering for the future.  He was born with that native spirit of "go to it"-even if all the world is against you.  He always attributed his worthy efforts and successes to his mother.  Possibly that spirit of ambition was inherited, for he was a descendant of statesmen and heroes of the past.

Frederic Knight Logan was the only grandchild of James K. Logan, a prominent Pennsylvania coal merchant, who owned and superintended, with the aid of his son, the father of Frederic, the operation of the noted Coal Bluff Mines near Pittsburgh, on the Monongahela River.  Frederic Knight Logan was a grand-nephew of Gen. James K. Moorhead of Pittsburgh, a statesman and United States senator from Pennsylvania; and he was also a very near relative of the noted American statesman, Gen. John A. Logan.  Through his mother Frederic Knight Logan was the only grandchild of Oliver Hampton Knight, an extensive landowner, and breeder of thoroughbred livestock, fine horses, cattle, hogs and sheep on the National Pike in East Bethlehem Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania.  Oliver Hampton Knight was a son of Hon. Jonathan Knight, and a descendant of Major General Wade Hampton, prominent in the military and political history of this country during its very early period.  Hon. Jonathan Knight, United States senator for years, was an expert mathematician, solving for the United States Government many technical problems.  He was commissioned many times by our Government to assist other countries at their request, and thereby made many trips to Europe.  He was a devout orthodox Quaker, and he and his wife occupied high seats in their church.  he was also a thirty-third degree Mason, receiving his highest degree while in London, England.  General Knight was commissioned by the United States Government to supervise and direct the construction of the National Pike from Cumberland, Maryland, to Illinois.  Knightstown, Indiana, was name in honor of this statesman.  He was the original and for many years the chief engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, which was a most wonderful and notable accomplishment.  Among Mr. Logan's near relatives through his mother were:  Hon. G. V. Lawrence, United States senator, both most prominent Pennsylvania statesmen, and Hon. James G. Blaine, United States senator, and the candidate of the Republican party in 1888 for the presidency, his running mate being Gen. John A. Logan, another relative, on his father's side, of Mr. Logan.

Frederic Knight Logan was a member of many organizations of dignity and rank.  He was most loyal to the Knights of Pythias, of which he was long a member.  He organized and directed from that body the Knights of Pythias Glee Club, which won Iowa statewide recognition of high standing.  Mr. Logan was also a member of the Rotary Club, the Business Men's Commercial Club, the Young Men's Christian Association, the Red Cross, the Armory Association, the Musicians Union, the General Federation of Music Clubs, the National Geographic Society of Washington, District of Columbia, and the exclusive American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers of New York City.  From early years until the close of his life he was a member of the First Presbyterian Church, officiating as organist, while his mother was director of the choir.

When, at the height of his musical career, wherein he had attained such marvelous success, engaged in numerous works with his mother, Virginia Knight Logan, and after he had brought international fame not only to the City of Oskaloosa, the State of Iowa and his native land through his musical career, by his unfaltering personal struggles against hardships and reverses, Frederic Knight Logan, the "Waltz King of America," on July 3, 1924, was stricken with apoplexy, and after a lingering illness of almost four years, under the attendance of Dr. C. A. Abbott, he succumbed; and in the light of his beautiful ever-abiding faith he slipped away at midnight, Monday, June 11, 1928.  He passed away at his home, the place of his birth, at Oskaloosa, Iowa.  The news that he was gone was as a knell to the old town, where he was so well known, and so endeared in the old friends and schoolmates.

On Thursday afternoon, June 14, from Mr. Logan's home he was conveyed to the Cheesman Undertaking Parlors, where he lay in state until the service at 2 o'clock, which services were conducted by Rev. W. D. Johnson, pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Oskaloosa.  In his sermon Reverend Johnson referred to the life of Mr. Logan as "One Great Song," and lauded the musician composer, who overcame many obstacles in is rise to fame; who carried to the professional field clean manhood, and who returned to his home and mother with a record unstained.  An appropriate memorial tribute, written by Mrs. Nellie Cady Williams of Chicago, a very close friend of Mr. Logan and family, was read by the pastor.  At the close of Reverend Johnson's part of the services Oskaloosa Lodge No. 58, Knights of Pythias, with which Mr. Logan in life was actively associated, conducted the beautiful ritualistic service for the dead.  At Forest Cemetery Reverend Johnson was in charge at the grave, while the Knights of Pythias paid an impressive, silent last tribute in their illustrious Brother Knight.

The same quiet manner that was characteristic of the Oskaloosa boy throughout his years of tedious training and diligent preparation to the place accorded him as one of the great musicians, directors and composers of America, marked the last rites of the man who had caught the divinely beautiful melody and grand harmony of the great universe.  It is said of him that the Hawkeye State may well be proud of her divinely gifted son, and accord him a place in her Grant Hall of Fame.  He has been given a permanent place in the Gallery of American Composers, for he created for himself a lasting memorial in the lasting quality of his work.  The newspapers and musical journals of the country, from coast to coast, contained beautiful memorials to Mr. Logan and his genius.  The reverence and esteem for Mr. Logan by his community, and his social and professional friends far and near, was exemplified in the numerous telegrams and letters of condolence, and a  beautiful memorial from a dear friend, as well as by the profusion of the rarest flowers, a veritable bower, which surrounded the bier and covered the last resting place of the "Waltz King of America."  There were not only tributes from his loved ones, neighbors, distant friends and musicians, but magnificent floral pieces from the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers of New York City, the F. J. Forster Music Publishing Company, Chicago, and other organizations.  Many relatives and friends from a distance were present at the services.

Of Frederic Knight Logan's immediate family he is survived by his devoted and sorrowing mother, Mrs. Virginia Knight Logan.

A magnificent fluted broken shaft, surmounted by an immortelle granite wreath, is a most fitting monument in the memory of the artist, cut off while young in years, and active in the midst of wonderful career.


"They never quite leave us, our friends who have passed

Through the shadow of death, to the sunlight above;

A thousand sweet memories are holding them fast

To the places they blessed with their presence and love.

"I cannot say, and I will not say that he is dead, he is just away.

With a cheery smile and a wave of the hand

He has wandered into an unknown land.

He is not dead, he is just away."


~ source: A Narrative History of The People of Iowa with SPECIAL TREATMENT OF THEIR CHIEF ENTERPRISES IN EDUCATION, RELIGION, VALOR, INDUSTRY, BUSINESS, ETC., by EDGAR RUBEY HARLAN, LL. B., A. M. Curator of the Historical, Memorial and Art Department of Iowa Volume IV THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY, Inc. Chicago and New York. 1931
~ transcribe by Debbie Clough Gerischer for the Great War