Back to Nelson Slaikeu page

Diary of Nelson Slaikeu

To May from Ruth Christmas 1928.


(Born at Schleswig, Denmark, November 10, 1840.
Died at Palacios, Texas, August 14, 1928.)

 This diary was dictated to his wife, Caroline, and
to his daughter, Ruth, and covers his experiences from the time
he left Germany, April 29, 1859, to time he settled in Iowa in
September, 1864.

April 29, 1859. Left Altona on a steamer for Hull. Took us three days. Went from Hull to Liverpool on cars. Wrote letters back home but first had to go and buy pen and ink, but didn't know what to call them in English.

May 5, 1859. We got aboard the big ship, Yorkshire. I called it the hungry ship because we did not get enough rations.

May 15, 1859. No provisions. Still winds and didn't look very encouraging to get across the ocean to America.

May 24, 1859. Good winds. Cris Fris's birthday today. Good winds up to the 27th.

May 28, 1859. No wind. Little to eat from the 24th to the 28th. Heavy fogs. Continually tolling the bells so we could not sleep day or night. On Sunday had good wind. I helped to sweep the deck. Again Sunday we heard from a fisherman we would see land any time now. Early on the 8th of June in the morning before leaving our bunks they called out "Land!" and at noon we came to New York. (About 35 days.) At five o'clock we took train for Philadelphia from where we took steamer for Castle Gardens. It is a very fine country here. The twon clock just struck 8 o'clock in the morning. We gave $1.00 for breakfast and dinner at the Hotel Golden Swan.

June 9, 1859. We not go to Pittsburgh and get there Saturday morning. We start for Windfort and got there at six o'clock Sunday morning. Stopped at the Hotel Deffenfort. This is a fine day. We spent the day here till nine o'clock in the evening. They took us to the train and we stayed all night in the cars. The next morning we started for Chicago and got there at 10 o'clock at night. Here we stood all alone and didn't know what to do, or where to go An agent found us and took us to a nice hotel. The next morning we boarded a steamer for Milwaukee, Wisconsin, our destination. When we got there no work could be found. The country was over-run with German immigrants. We paid $3.00 a week for board in advance and only stayed two days. Fris got lonesome and wouldn't stay any longer. We started out of the city on foot, looking for work. I found an old woman that I could talk German to. She told me how to ask for work in English and what they would ask me. "You got no work for me?" "How much you want the day?" We were on our way to Racine, wisconsin, to see if we could get work on the railroad. In Racine we met some of our countymen who advised us to go out amongst the farmers and get work. I ate pan-cakes in a Danish man's house in Racine.

June 18, 1859. On Saturday, the 18th of June, we went out ten miles from Racine to Mr. Schritzmeyer and went to meeting that day.

June 20, 1859. On Monday, June 20, 1859, I started out to work for an old widow woman, Mrs. Bennett, at 37 1/2 ¢ a day, pulling mustard out of wheat. I moved over to Mr. Watts and worked for him three months and got $26 for it. After that I helped an Irishman dig wells a half month for $4. I then went to Mr. James Bennett and worked for him a month and got $6. I stayed there that winter and went to school. Froze my ears going to school one cold morning. I never will forget the pain I had in my ears. New Year's Eve, the folks all away from home, I got the blues pretty bad. Went to school three months. Hired out to Mr. Bennett again in the Spring. Commenced work the fifth day of March, 1860, and worked eight and a half months for $90. Overworked one day and got 75 cents. I thought that a terrible price.

November 16, 1860. I started for Lexington, Illinois. Cost me seven dollars car fare.

November 19, 1860. I began husking corn for John Ellis. Received fifteen dollars for one month. Stayed with the same man that winter and did chores. Worked from the first of March up till the 15th of August for $15 a month for him and his brother, James.

August 22, 1861. I enlisted in the 1st Iowa Cavalry at Burlington, Iowa. I rode my own hose in the service. We laid in Camp Warren at Burlington until the 30th of August. Went to St. Louis in a steamer. Was quartered at Benton Barracks, Missouri. We started from there to Jefferson City on the 21st of October. From here we marched to California. Got there on the 24th in the evening. On the 25th we marched from California to Syracuse.

October 26, 1861. Marched from Syracuse to Otterville.

October 27, 1861. Marched to Smithton.

October 28 and 29, 1861. Marched.

October 30, 1961. Came to Warsaw.

October 31, 1861. Came within nine miles of General Pope's command.

November 1, 1861. At 12 o'clock noon we caught up with General Pope. In the evening we started for Springfield. At ten o'clock we came to Bolivar. Stayed there two hours. Next day got to Springfield expecting to have a fight with the Rebels. We stayed in town two days, then moved a half mile north and camped.

November 9, 1861. Started back.

November 13, 1861. We came to Warsaw. We marched two miles north of town and camped.

November 14, 1861. We started on.

November 15, 1861. We got to Cole Camp. At four o'clock we came within six miles of Smithton.

November 16, 1861. We came to Otterville and camped over night.

November 17, 1861. Came to Syracuse and laid in camp.

November 19, 1861. In the evening we started out for a fight but the Rebels retreated and we couldn't find them.

November 21, 1861. We came back to camp. This was the hardest trip we had taken, both for man and beast, since we had started.

November 22, 1861. It was very cold. I helped to load three loads of corn for our horses. From the 22nd to the 28th very cold.

November 28, 1861. Marshall and I went out with the teamster to get hay. In the evening I received a letter from the old country. Was very glad to get a letter from home.

November 29, 1861. Moved two miles down in the timer.

December 1, 1861. I sent a letter home.

December 2, 1861. It snowed. Snow was from three to four inches deep. We started after the Rebels. Went eighteen miles. Got back the evening of the 3rd. Very cold.

December 5, 1861. Started out and went thirteen miles. Came back home the next day at two o'clock and at four we started to go thirty miles without feeding our horses. That night it rained very hard. The next morning started and came within ten miles of Warsaw. Came back to camp the same evening. Nearly everbody played out.

December 9, 1861. Received our pay for three months. I paid out of my share $32 for a saddle. Received $43.60 as rest of my pay from the government.

December 15, 1861. Sunday. We moved to Sedalia.

December 16, 1861. Marched to Calhoun.

December 17, 1861. Marched twelve miles through woods.

December 18, 1861. Came within two miles of Warrensburg.

December 19, 1861. Now we commence to have a little fun. A Rebel, Colonel Robinson, had recruited 1300 men in northwest Missouri and was coming down through to join General Pric's army. General Pope, our commander, found it out and started his cavalry in pursuit of them and overtook them at Black water Creek. Our infantry and one battery came to our relief. We mad them surrender without much fighting. This day I saw the first wounded soldier of ours. We took one thousand prisoners, sixtynine wagons filled with guns and ammunition and provisions, also three hundred horses and mules.

December 21, 1861. We took the prisoners to Sedalia. They were sent to St. Louis by rail. Our command went back to Otterville and on the 29th we marched to Booneville.

December 30, 1861. I am sick and have been for some days.

January 1, 1862. I went to hospital at Booneville.

January 11, 1862. Wrote a letter to Ellis and Schritzmeyer.

January 16, 1862. Came out of hospital.

January 18, 1862. Marched to Otterville.

January 20, 1862. got my first fire-arms, a Colt's revolver, No. 934. Number of my old saber was 840. Received a letter from home. Traded horses with Johnson. Received a letter from Purnell and Schritzmeyer.

January 26, 1862. We marched two miles west of Sedalia and at night we received our pay. Next day I traded horses with Hasford and got back Tom, Marshall's horse.

January 29, 1862. Had frost and cold weather. Today is my brother's birthday.

January 31, 1862. Rode up to Sedalia and mailed a letter for Marshall.

February 1, 1862. Went sixteen miles after fodder.

February 2, 1862. Moved our camp into timber. Today sold my watch chain to Mr. Foux for $1.00.

February 4, 1862. Received a letter from Schritzmeyer.

February 6, 1862. In the evening stood on guard.

February 7, 1862. Answered Schritzmeyer's letter. Marshall and I dissolved partnership of horses. We each own our own ricks. I stood guard today. We heard cannon shooting and small arms. We do not know what is up but I expect some of the Secessionists have got together and are practicing. I suppose they will be marks for us soon.

February 8, 1862. Was out on drill practicing with revolver and riding around on a circle shooting at trees.

February 11, 1862. Went on a scout. Found nothing.

February 14, 1862. Went to Warsaw. Captured four officers and a few of their men. The most were across the river. Uncommon cold for soldiers to be on duty.

February 19, 1862. I was on guard again. The 18th we received word that Fort Henry and Fort Donaldson were taken by the Unionists - - 15,000 prisoners, 72 cannons and 15,000 small arms.

February 20, 1862. I sent my picture to John Ellis. I had my horse shod in front.

February 21, 1862. I was ordered out with the quartermaster to get fodder. Came back next day. The 22nd, 23rd and 24th I was cook.

February 25, 1862. This is a very fine day. Marshall owes me $4.35.

February 26, 1862. Had my hair cut. Washed my clothes.

February 28, 1862. We had a review at Sedalia. Received our pay for two months.

March 1, 1862. I was on guard. Very cold.

March 2, 1862. Snowed some. Got a letter from Schritzmeyer last night.

March 3, 1862. Went out on a scout eighty miles from camp. Took us two and a half days to get there. Enemy gone. We took forty prisoners. We came through the towns of Calhoun, Belmont, Clinton and Pleasant Gap. We were gone 132 hours. Were in our saddles 80 hours. Hardest trip so far. We have learned nearly what a hose can stand by this time. Came back the evening of the 7th. The 3rd Battalion of our regiment came to Sedalia from St. Louis while we were gone.

March 11, 1862. We had a review before our Colonel.

March 12, 1862. We moved our camp south of town.

March 13, 1862. Built a stable for my horse. The day before the 2rd Battalion went out on a scout.

March 14, 1862. I was on guard.

March 15, 1862. We received news that New Madrid was evacuated.

March 17, 1862. I was on guard. Today the Colonel and Company C went to Clinton.

March 18, 1862. I wrote a letter to my mother and brother. The 19th and 20th Island No. 10 was taken. I has been very bad weather for two days.

March 23, 1862. Fine day. I was on guard.

March 26, 1862. Traded horses, my little Tom for a red sorrel and gave $7.50 to boot. The man's name was John M. Ellis. He lived twelve miles north of Warsaw. Yesterday the 3rd Battalion came in with fifteen prisoners from Clinton to Sedalia.

March 27, 1862. Went out to Warrensburg at 11 o'clock at night.

March 28, 1862. We had a little fight ten miles west of town. One man killed and one wounded of our regiment. Eight or ten killed of the Rebels, 15 taken prisoners, among them Colonel Parker.

March 31, 1862. We cam back to camp. It rained all day. We got soaked to the skin.

April 1, 1862. Rained very hard. From the 1st to the 9th no news in particular. I am not feeling very well.

April 11, 1862. Received news that Bouregard was defeated at Pittsburg Landing. Battle lasted two days. Our men were driven back to the Tennessee River the first day. Two battleships and 40,000 reinforcements overpowered the Rebels. Sydney Johnson was killed. Bouregard was wounded in the arm. Took forty cannon, six batteries. 15,000 dead and wounded on the battlefield.

April 13, 1862. We had inspection of arms. Up till the 15th no news.

April 16, 1862. Heavy thunder storm.

April 17, 1862. Rained all day.

April 18, 1862. No news.

April 19, 1862. We cleaned our fire arms. Unloaded them first. From the 19th to the 30th no news but drilled twice a day.

April 30, 1862. Called into line and roll called for our pay for March and April.

May 2, 1862. Wrote to John Ellis.

May 5, 1862. At 9 o'clock we started for Lexington. Went Through Georgetown and the girls of that town presented us with a nice flag which they carried through town and then presented it to us with great honor. We marched fifteen miles.

May 6, 1862. Came to Seigel, 18 miles. Fine country. Nicest I have seen in Missouri.

May 7, 1862. Came to Lexington. We saw the place where General Price fought Mulligan. Two large houses were shot all to pieces.

May 8, 1862. Went back six miles towards Warrensburg.

May 9, 1862. Camped on the same place.

May 10, 1862. Came back to Lexington.

May 11, 1862. Wrote a letter to Schritzmeyer.

May 12, 1862. Went from Lexington toward Clinton.

May 15, 1862. We arrived at Clinton. All quiet.

May 19, 1862. Went out on a scout of forty-five miles to an island in the Osage River. Surrounded the island and didn't find a man on it. Bombarded it.

May 23, 1862. Came back to camp.

May 26, 1862. Received pay for four months, $100.

May 27, 1862. Received a letter from home. Wrote a letter to Schritzmeyer.

May 28, 1862. Sent a letter to my mother.

My 31, 1862. Stood guard on the bridge. In the evening received reinforcements. Expecting an attack from the enemy.

June 2, 1862. We heard that Corinth was taken.

June 3, 1862. No news up till June 14th.

June 19, 1862. Marshall sent $100 to Wisconsin. I bought a watch. Paid fifteen dollars.

July 11, 1862. Had a fight with Quandrill's men. Ten killed of our men. Two out of our company, Dodge and Bigroft.

July 16, 1862. Received our pay, $63.15. Very warn. Up to the first of July received $490.70.

July 23, 1862. Wrote a letter to Purnell.

July 28, 1862. Wrote a letter to Schritzmeyer and sent $150 in it. Moved to Sedalia about the 18th of August.

August 20, 1862. West to Oceola expecting to go on to Springfield but came back to Clinton.

August 27, 1862. Wrote to Purnell.

August 28, 1862. Laid in camp two miles east of Clinton.

August 31, 1862. We had a review and signed the pay roll.

September 2, 1862. Was ordered out on a scout. Came back the 4th. Then went twenty miles on the prairie. They had gone.

September 10, 1862. Rained all day. Received our pay. Sent $65 to Schritzmeyer.

September 20, 1862. Went from Clinton to Springfield.

September 24, 1862. Marched through three small towns.

September 26, 1862. Came to Springfield. Our company was first in town.

September 28, 1862. I stood guard. Fodder is very scarce. Our horses don't get one-fourth enough to eat.

September 29, 1862. We started west and went about nine miles and laid down to sleep.

September 30, 1862. Put up our tents and waited for further orders.

October 1, 1862. Went ten miles west and next day ten miles and went into camp at evening. We are about 16 miles from the enemy.

October 4, 1862. We started towards enemy's camp but when they saw our command come up out of the timber they fell back. We killed some and took some prisoners and cannonaded into the timber. We might as well have had ten thousand prisoners if orders had been executed as had been planned. Some failure of duty somewhere. We are lying in camp waiting for orders. We saw the way the enemy went.

October 10, 1862. Rained all day and the night before.

October 11, 1862. Dried my clothes.

October 12, 1862. Came to Cashville. Laid in camp.

October 13, 1862. Laid in camp. Wrote a letter to Schritzmeyer.

October 17, 1862. Struck tents. Marched all day and late in the evening went into camp. Was on guard all night. Horses had nothing to eat for 28 hours.

October 18, 1862. In camp. Went out into country to get something to eat. Almost played out.

October 19, 1862. Went with the command to get fodder and corn for our horses. Got a letter from home today.

October 20, 1862. Late in the evening we got orders to march and marched twenty miles and camped without feeding our horses and camped on White River. Started next morning and marched all day. This is the roughest country I have ever seen. Cliffs 600 feet high and perpendicular.

October 22, 1862. Marched to another place on White River.

October 23, 1862. Went ten miles at full gallop. Drove the enemy's outposts into camp. Killed one hose and took the prisoner but when we got into next town the Rebels had Disappeared. Went from there to Cross Hollow. Went into camp. Heard General Blunt. He had a battle with the Rebels. Killed two men, captured six men and captured some provisions. Lost on our side, 75 men.

October 27, 1862. Today I am on the sick list.

October 28, 1862. Our regiment had a little fight. I was not with them. One of the men wounded.

October 29 and 30, 1862. Company M was on picket. Three hundred Rebels charged them and wounded one man. Shot an arm off.

October 31, 1862. Signed the pay roll.

November 2, 1862. I feel a little better today.

November 4, 1862. Started from Cross Hollow to Elk Horn Tavern and camped.

November 5, 1862. Went to Cashville.

November 6, 1862. Marched to Sugar Creek.

November 7, 1862. Laid in camp.

November 8, 1862. In the afternoon Companies F, G, and H started on a scout. Got to Ozark the first day.

November 9, 1862. Went to Beaver Station.

November 10, 1862. My birthday. Went back to Ozark.

November 11, 1862. The balance of our regiment got together here.

November 12, 1862. Went on a fodder detail in the evening with seven days rations.

November 13, 1862. Marched all night and next day till late.

November 14, 1862. Laid in camp.

November 15, 1862. Thirteen of us went to Clark's Mill and camped. Had no tents. It rained all night.

November 16, 1862. Marched all forenoon. Found some fodder and fed our horses. Came back to camp early in the evening.

November 17, 1862. Marched till late at night. Caught up with the rest of the regiment. Laid here till morning.

November 18, 1862. Marched four miles to Clear Creek. We laid here in mud up to our eyes and moved one mile into timber on higher ground. Cleared up in the evening and I am almost dry now. I had been raining hard . Discharged our arms and cleaned then up.

November 20, 1862. Washed my clothes.

November 21, 1862. Wrote home to mother.

November 22, 1862. We marched three miles and camped on the Springfield road.

December 2, 1862. Our recruits joined us.

December 2, 1862. We marched to a creek and camped. Was ordered out at three o'clock to forage.

December 4, 1862. Went to Cashville, 28 miles.

December 5, 1862. Marched to Pearidge.

December 6, 1862. Marched two miles south of Mud Town and fed our horses. Marched all night.

December 7, 1862. Heard cannon booming. Was ordered into line to guard our wagons all day. General Heron's division had started from Springfield to reinforce General Blunt down in Arkansas. General Marmaduke sent 2000 men from the front and attacked Heron's division at Prairie Grove, Arkansas. Part of the 1st Missouri Cavalry was taken prisoners. 6th, 7th and 8th Missouri Cavalry fell back to where the 19th and 20th Iowa Cavalry, 19th Wisconsin, 37th and 94th Illinois and 26th Indian Infantry were in line. They fought until sun down when Blunt came to the relief and the Rebels were driven from the battle field. Our loss was 550 killed and wounded. Rebels lost 800. Our battalion was three miles from the battle field guarding a provision and ammunition train. Lucky for us they didn't know we were there with our trains.

December 8, 1862. We and the Rebels buried our dead under a flag of truce. The wounded were taken to Fayetteville. Seventy-seven were buried in one grave. We came in the evening with our wagons.

December 9, 1862. Move a mile and a half into the timber. I visited the battlefield today and saw many of the dead.

December 10, 1862. Some of our regiment went out on a scout.

December 11, 1862. I began cooking for mess on the 3rd at 75¢ a month for each man.

December 12, 1862. No news.

December 13, 1862. Heavy rain and still no news. From the 13th up till the 25th no news.

December 26, 1862. In the afternoon we started out on a six day scout.

December 28, 1862. We were twenty miles from Van Buren. We went full charge until we got to town. When we arrived we had but little to do for we surprised the Rebels. Captured two steamers and one ferry boat. Fed our horses and ourselves. In the meantime the Rebels opened fire from across the river and threw shells into our camp. Also destroyed the boats we had captured. Out batteries came up in the meanwhile and silenced the guns on the other side. Started back that evening for Prairie Grove after burning ships and stores.

December 30, 1862. Got back to Prairie Grove.

January 2, 1863. Marched from Prairie Grove and camped three miles south of Fayetteville.

January 5, 1863. Started marching.

January 7, 1863. Came to Huntville.

January 9, 1863. Left there and came to Carrolton on the 12th.

January 16, 1863. I was ordered out on guard.

January 17, 1863. Very cold. Started from Carrolton and went seventeen miles and camped.

January 20, 1863. Came to Forsyth. River was high.

January 21, 1863. We began crossing the river on ferry boats.

January 26, 1863. Our regiment was taken across. In the afternoon it rained.

February 1, 1863. I received a letter from home and one from Schritzmeyer. Zach, A private of Company B, killed a Secessionist with an iron rod. His name was Bolden.

February 3, 1863. Wrote a letter home.

February 4, 1863. Sold my watch to Sam Huff. It snowed two inches in the night.

February 12, 1863. Received $50.40 from the Government. Up till March second, no news.

March 2, 1863. Started from camp on Saline Creek.

March 3, 1863. St noon came to Moyuntain Grove city. Our tents came just in time. it was raining.

March 7, 1863. News came that the "Queen of the West" was taken.

March 10, 1863. Received a letter from mother and brother.

March 11, 1863. I wrote to Schritzmeyer.

March 13, 1863. Mr. Soule came back to the company.

March 15, 1863. I wrote a letter to Hans Paulson.

March 16, 1863. Marched from Mountain Grove. A very fine day. Marshall went to Rolla today. Went eighteen miles and camped on Gasconda River.

March 17, 1863. Marched 22 miles. Dan Hopper died last night.

March 18, 1863. We went twelve miles into a pine forest.

March 19, 1863. Marched twelve miles, six miles east of the Currant River. Took the 20th Wisconsin Infantry across the river on our horses.

March 20, 1863. Started out on a scout. Came back the 21st.

March 22, 1863. Started out on an expedition. .

March 26, 1863. Came back. The enemy had retreated. Our regiment received our carbines, new sabers and belts.

March 30, 1863. Marched in a northwesterly direction.

March 31, 1863. In the morning came to Salem. Went into camp 14 miles from Rolla on a little stream.

April 2, 1863. I traded watches with D. Scott. Got $8.50 to boot. Very nice weather.

April 4, 1863. Traded watches with Mr. Cornell. Gave him $10 to boot.

April 5, 1863. General Heron reviewed the Cavalry Division.

April 9, 1863. Sold my horse for $92.50 and bought one for $70.

April 15, 1863. Signed the pay roll.

April 16, 1863. Received our pay for four months, $100.

April 17, 1863. Marshall and I had our pictures taken.

April 18, 1863. Received a letter from Schritzmeyer. Sent $90 to Rolla to go to him.

April 20, 1863. Isa Soule has transferred to 8th Missouri Cavalry.

April 21, 1863. Started out on scout.

April 23, 1863. At four o'clock came to Pilot Knob. Marched eighty miles in two days.

April 24, 1863. Laid in camp. I went up to the top of a mountain where I could see over the country. Camp was about a mile below. After being there about ten minutes we heard the buglar blow "boots and saddles". I went down so lively that I was about played out.

April 25, 1863. Marched to Frederictown. Got there at sundown and then was ordered out on picket. Was out allnight.

April 26, 1863. In the morning we threw a shell into Jackson but the enemy retreated ten miles and made a stand and fought with the 3rd. Iowa Cavalry.

April 27, 1863. At 12 o'clock noon we started out on a march till eight o'clark next morning. Stopped and fed our horses. The evening of the 28th I stood on picket.

April 29, 1863. I was on guard.

April 30, 1863. Marched again.

May 1, 1863. Drove the enemy ahead of us for twenty miles. Four men out of our regiment were wounded. Kept skirmishing the while.

May 2, 1863. We drove the enemy across the St. Francis River.

May 3, 1863. Came to Bloomfield. Camped over night.

May 4, 1863. At 12 o'clock were ordered to march.

May 6, 1863. At noon came to Cape Girardeau. Pretty cool.

May 8, 1863. From here to Jackson in the evening. Camped over night.

May 9, 1863. Marched to Frederictown and camped.

May 10, 1863. Came to Pilot Knob.

May 12, 1863. Marched from Pilot Knob.

May 14, 1863. Came back into camp.

May 15, 1863. Received a letter from home. No news up to the 28th.

May 29, 1863. Received our pay.

May 31, 1863. Sent $45 to Schritzmeyer and sent a letter home.

June 12, 1863. Moved from camp seven miles. The last three days it has rained continually. Fine today.

June 13, 1863. Marched twelve miles. We are now on the road to Pilot Knob.

June 15, 1863. Reached Pilot Knob.

June 16, 1863. No news.

June 18, 1863. Received a letter from Schritzmeyer and sent a picture to Ellis.

June 19, 1863. Private Johnson came back to the regiment.

June 20, 1863. Moved camp.

June 21, 1863. General inspection under General Davis.

June 23, 1863. One of General Scofield's officers came into our camp.

June 24, 1863. Rained all day.

June 30, 1863. Received on month s pay. I paid out of this $29 for clothes.

July 1, 1863. We started and marche d three days.

July 4, 1863. We laid in camp twenty miles from Frederictown.

July 6, 1863. We marched 57 miles.

July 7, 1863. We laid in camp.

July 8, 1863. Marched 15 miles.

July 9, 1863. Laid in camp.

July 15, 1863. Our company was detailed to go after corn.

July 19, 1863. We marched from Bloomfield.

July 24, 1863. Came to Gainsville.

July 25, 1863. Came to Greensborough.

August 8, 1863. Came to Clarendon on White River.

August 16, 1863. Wrote a letter to mother and Hans. Crossed the White River.

August 22, 1863. Received a letter from Schritzmeyer. Answered it the same day. We started on a march over the prairie towards Little Rock.

August 24, 1863. Marched eight miles. I stood on picket that night.

August 25, 1863. Marched to Brownville.

August 26, 1863. Went eight miles. Engaged with the enemy and fell back. Very dry and dusty.

August 27, 1863. Fought the enemy all day and burned one or two bridges. Went back to camp.

August 28, 1863. Stayed in camp.

August 29, 1863. Scott sent to hospital.

August 30, 1863. Received a letter from home.

September 2, 1863. Started from camp in evening and came to Houston.

September 3, 1863. Stayed in camp.

September 6, 1863. Wrote a letter to Denmark.

September 10, 1863. One of our spies came into camp. He reported on spy shot by the enemy near Little Rock.

September 16, 1863. Scott came back.

September 17, 1863. It was cold and rained some.

September 20, 1863. Wrote a letter to Purnell.

Septebmer 30, 1863. Wrote a letter to Sergeant Hanson.

October 1, 1863. Wrote a letter to Hans Paulson.

October 4, 1863. Attended church.

October 11, 1863. Attended a Catholic church in Little Rock.

October 12, 1863. Our company fought the Rebels forty miles below Little Rock.

October 13, 1863. Charles Porter died. Our regiment voted for state officer in Iowa.

October 14, 1863. Received our pay, $50.08.

October 15, 1863. Moved our camp one mile east from town into cornfield.

October 17, 1863. Was ordered to build our winter quarters (log houses). Thomas Mulford died.

October 18, 1863. Sunday. Commenced to build.

October 19, 1863. I repaired my saddle and bridle. In the evening was ordered out on a two days scout.

October 20, 1863. I got a sack of cotton and put it under my blankets.

October 21, 1863. In the afternoon came back to camp. It rained most of the time.

October 23, 1863. Very cold.

October 25, 1863. Sent out again from Little Rock at one o'clock.

October 26, 1863. In the evening camped on the Arkansas River.

October 27, 1863. Came to Pine Bluff. 1st Indiana and 5th Kansas Cavalry were in camp here. Have had a big fight with Marmaduke. He had 4000 men. we had 600. They charged our men and fell back with great loss. Enemy captured some wagons and negros. Our loss was 16 killed and some wounded. Battle commenced at eight o'clock in the morning and lasted until four o'clock in the afternoon. We marched from Pine Bluff on the 27th and all that night and came to Palmyra. Fed our horses and marched again on road five miles toward Arkadelphia and back again on the way to Princeton.

October 28, 1863. Our company went within one and a half miles of Princeton. Found the pickets and fell into camp.

October 29, 1863. The whole command went to Princeton but the Rebels had left. From here we started to Arkadelphia. Got there late and camped in the streets. It rained hard and was pretty cold.

October 30, 1863. Marched from Arkadelphia to Rockfort and from there to Benton on the 31st.

November 1, 1863. We came to Little Rock. We were gone seven days and started with four days rations. J. W. Smith died while we were gone.

November 2, 1863. Laid in camp.

November 3, 1863. On guard,

November 6, 1863. Were after forage. I stood guard on a bridge eleven miles from camp. A nice night.

November 10, 1863. I went to Little Rock.

November 11, 1863. Our regiment had an inspection of arms.

November 13, 1863. Stood guard.

November 14, 1863. Fixed up a stall for my horse.

November 15, 1863. On detail after forage.

November 16, 1863. Came back to camp.

November 19, 1863. Had some pictures taken. Commenced to build a stable for Scott's horse.

November 27, 1863. Got a letter from home.

December 1, 1863. Wrote a letter to brother Hans.

December 2, 1863. Detailed after forage.

December 4, 1863. Came back to camp.

December 5, 1863. Every able bodied man was ordered out on a ten day trip. Companies G, H, I and A did not go. Stood guard on foot.

December 8, 1863. Was on guard.

December 12, 1863. The eight companies came back. They met the enemy at Rockfort and followed them to Princeton where the enemy made a stand. We had one man wounded in Company K.

December 15, 1863. Our regiement was reviewed by Major Thompson and one major from "Merrill's Horse."

December 16, 1863. Our company was detailed after forage. We crossed the Arkansas river. The worst roads I have seen since I came into the service. The river began to rise.

December 19, 1863. Steamer went to Pine Bluff with provisions for our army. On this day I commenced to cook for the mess. The same day the Veterans went to Iowa on a furlough. This evening I bought McMillan's horse for $65.

December 22, 1863. Wrote a letter to mother and sent a picture to my aunt. No news of importance.

December 23, 1863. Our battalion was out on drill.

December 24, 1863. Christmas Eve. No fun. No nothing.

December 25, 1863. Our battalion was on picket. Our company was on the Pine Bluff road eleven miles from Little Rock.

December 26, 1863. In the morning went five miles after corn blades for horses. I brought fourteen bundles into camp on my little horse, 15 miles. It rained continually.

December 27, 1863. Out on drill near St. John's College.

December 28, 1863. We laid in camp. River is rising.

December 29, 1863. Was on guard. Captain McDermouth brought our mail. Got news from home that my brother had gone to Australia-- news I did not expect. Received a letter from Schritzmeyer. Came back to camp. Same day Captain Noble inspected our horses. Today I learned the King of Denmark died November 15th.

December 31, 1863. It snowed and blowed and froze on the horses. Our company was out on four days rations. We marched twenty miles the first day and New Year's Eve stood guard five hours and did not sleep any all night.

January 1, 1864. We rode 22 miles and I froze one of my feet.

January 2, 1864. Came back to camp. Toook a few prisoners. Hard on man and horse.

January 3, 1864. Laid in camp.

January 4, 1864. Reported to camp with frost-bitten foot.

January 7, 1864. In the evening Major Thompson made a great speech to the regiment and before 12 o'clock all the companies except Company G had enlisted for three years more. Part of Company G did too.

January 8, 1864. Stood guard. A spy was hung in Little Rock. It has been a nice day. Every soldier that did not enlist was examined by Doctor Lathrop. In the evening I stood guard. No news up to the 17th.

January 18, 1864. I was on a picket guard. The 11th Illinois Regiment was sent home and the 3rd Iowa had been sent home a week before.

January 20, 1864. Were sent after forage. Brought a good lot of it. Weather very fine. Colonel Clayton had a battle with the enemy twelve miles from Pine Bluff.

January 24, 1864. Marshall and I rode to Little Rock on pleasure trip.

January 26, 1864. On guard. A very warm day,. Took a swim in the Arkansas River.

January 27, 1864. Went back tocamp.

January 29, 1864. We started for forage again. Was gone four days. Came back February 1st. Mr. Scott was in camp when we came back.

February 2, 1864. A very strong wind and the Arkansas River was rising rapdily the last few days. I got my watch back.

February 3, 1864. I was on guard.

February 4, 1864. Came back. Rested in camp three days.

February 8, 1864. On picket again.

February 9, 1864.Received aletter from Mr. Schritzmeyer.

February 10, 1864. Answered Mr. Schritzmeyer's letter. Rested until the 18th. Then we went on a two days scout. Rode 32 miles the first day. Came home that night. Marched 37 miles the next day. My horse took sick. Some of the other horses did too. Took several prisoners. Brought on wounded prisoner into camp.

February 24, 1864. We laid in camp.

February 25, 1864. Started north across the Arkansas river to scout a brigade wagon train going after forage. I was sick nearly all the way.

February 26, 1864. In the evening Tom West accidentally shot himself in the left hand.

February 29, 1864. Rained all day.

March 1, 1864. Nice day. River rising rapidly. This evening Mr. Johnson rode my horse, Billy, to Little Rock. L. Simmons is in Little Rock today.

March 3, 1864. We went south with a forage train. We went to the Johnson farm to get forage. Came back on the 4th. The day before part of our infantry were sent to reenforce our army at Pine Bluff.

March 5, 1864. Inspection of arms. From this time up till the 22nd we went foraging, had drilling and inspeciton of arms. Laid in camp.

March 22, 1864. Delivered up our cooking utensils to the Commissary Department. Had orders to march next morning at five o'clock.

March 23, 1864. Marched twelve miles from Little Rock. Stood picket all night.

March 24, 1864. Marched nine miles and camped one mile south of Benton. Raining continually. Drove the Rebels out of Benton. Took on prisoner.

March 25, 1864. Marched seven miles driving enemy before us all day. Got a bundle of corn blades for my horse tonight.

March 26, 1864. Marched eleven miles. Camped one mile from Reyburn.

March 27, 1864. We drew four days rations. Marched eleven miles. Camped out for the night.

March 28, 1864. Marched eight miles. Companies F and G in advance.

March 29, 1864. Came to Arkadelphia.

March 30, 1864. Marched ten miles from Arkadelphia.

April 2, 1864. Had a fight with the enemy. Killed one. Wounded two.

April 3, 1864. Laid in camp on the Little Missouri. Firing continually on the enemy.

April 4, 1864. Had a sharp engagement with the enemy. Company G had four wounded, one killed. This afternoon Companies F and G went out on scout. Did not find the enemy.

April 5, 1864. Laid in camp and buried Victor Gilbert who was killed in battle the day before.

April 6, 1864. We marched five miles and drove the enemy's picket in. In the morning our company was sent out on picket.

April 7 and 8, 1864. Laid in camp.

April 9, 1864. Went back to the Little Missouri.

April 10, 1864. Marched five miles and had a fight on the open prairie. That night our whole army was in line. The enemy charged our batteries and was driven back by great loss on their side.

April 11, 1864. Our infantry advanced slowly and drove the enemy before them. Our regiment laid in a rain storm all day.

April 12, 1864. We marched against the enemy and drove them out of their pits. Went back eight miles toward Camden.

April 13, 1864. Marched twelve miles.

April 14, 1864. Marched six miles. Had a little battle in the evening.

April 15, 1864. Had an engagement with the enemy. Two killed, ten wounded on our side. Came back to Camden in the evening.

April 16, 1864. Our brigade started out from Camden to capture a steamer loaded with 5000 bushels of forn. Part of Company G came back to Camden on the steamer.

April 17, 1864. We moved our camp.

April 18, 1864. We fought with the Rebels. They took 180 wagons, 300 men. The Negro Regiment had a big fight.

April 19, 1864. We had inspection of arms.

April 20, 1864. Our company was on forage detail.

April 21, 1864. I wrote a letter to my mother today. Laid in camp.

April 22, 1864. Companies F and G detailed to go for forage.

April 24, 1864. Laid in camp. The enemy fired on our pickets with cannon.

April 25, 1864. Went out ten miles for forage. In theevening marched from Camden. Rode all night and camped about twenty-five miles from Camden. Came back and camped about three miles east of Camden.

April 26, 1864. General Steele burned 150 wagons and a quantity of cooking utensils.

April 27, 1864. Marched from camp at 3 A. M. Marched twenty miles. I stood on picket during the night.

April 28, 1864. We reached Princeton.

April 29, 1864. Went forward about twelve miles and came to Saline River. Laid there two hours then marched six miles to the other side of the river. Went into camp. Raining continually

April 30, 1864. The infantry engaged with the enemy. At 11 o'clock we marched and camped four miles from Little Rock. The same day General Steele fought a battle on the Saline River. We took 3 cannon and had 800 killed and wounded.

May 1, 1864. We marched to Little Rock.

May 2, 1864. Our regiment marched to Benton and back and moved camp.

May 3 and 4, 1864. The cavalry went to the Saline River and back. Laid in camp till the 9th.

May 9, 1864. The regiment went out on expedition. I went four miles. Then my horse fell lame and I them returned to camp. Laid there two or three days.

May 13, 1864. Was promoted to be corporal to fill Victor Gilbert's place.

May 18, 1864. We went out on the Pine road and stood guard until 3 o'clock. Came to camp. Laid ther till the 24th. Nothing doing up till the 28th.

May 29, 1864. Went out on a three days scout.

June 1, 1864. We marched thirty-five miles.

June 2, 1864. We marched sixty-five miles.

June 3, 1864. We marched fifteen miles. Came to Jenkins Ferry.

June 5, 1864. I was on guard.

June 6, 1864. Silas Trenchard was sent to Ft. Smith. I lent him ten dollars.

June 13, 1864. I stood guard. Today Colonel Hinter broke his neck and was buried. No news to speak of the last few days. Theenemy is coming nearer. I laid in camp up to the 12th of August. Very sick with diarrhoea.

August 13, 1864. I am a little better. Heard the good news. The old sodiers are to go to St. Louis to be discharged.

August 14, 1864. Was relieved from duty.

August 17, 1864. We started from camp for Dewals Bluff on cattle cars which almost shook us to death.

August 19, 1864. Came back to Little Rock.

August 21, 1864. Back to Dewals Bluff.

August 23, 1864. At four o'clock we boarded a steamer at Canton. Went down White River.

August 27, 1864. Came to Memphis.

August 30, 1864. Came to St. Louis on Steamer "McGill."

August 31, 1864. Started from St. Louis to Davenport and got there September 4th.

September 9, 1864. I received my discharge paper from Uncle Sam.

September 12, 1864. Received my pay for 144.80. I had been getting better from the time I got on the steamer.

September 13, 1864. Went over to Rock Island to Fort Bacon. From there on the steamer to Dubuque. Lodged at the Dubuque House. Paid $3.50 a week. Then left for Iowa where Marshall and I bought eighty acres in Eagle Grove, Wright County, Iowa, at three dollars per acre. I had about $1,000.00.

The End.

Transcribed by MA Schwanke