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1889 Bios Index

1889 BIOGRAPHICAL HISTORY OF
SHELBY AND AUDUBON COUNTIES, IOWA

W. S. DUNBAR & CO., PUBLISHERS
113 ADAMS STREET, CHICAGO


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JAMES HALL is one of Cameron Town ship's energetic farmers, who give char acter and influence to a community. He was born in Stark County, Illinois, January 14,1845, and is the second son of Robert and Harriet (Marsh) Hall. The grandfather was Robert Hall, a native of England, who fought in the war of 1812 on the British side. Robert Hall, the father of James, emigrated to America in 1836, and afterward married and settled in Stark County, Illi nois, where he and his wife are still living. The mother of our subject, Harriet Hall, was born In the State of Pennsylvania, Nine children were born to her and Robert Hall, six of whom are living. The childhood and school days of James Hall were passed in Stark County, Illinois, where he received a greater part of his education in the dis trict school. Later, however, he entered the Princeton Academy In Bureau County, Illi nois. After leaving school he began farming in his native county, and afterward spent some time in Bureau County. In the spring of 1881 Mr. Hall removed with his family to Audubon County, Iowa, locating upon his present farm, which at that time was wild prairie land; and then the struggle began in opening out the farm and making a new home.He afterward purchased another 160 acre tract, securing in one body 320 acres of most excellent land. The place is now well stocked with hogs and cattle, on which Mr. Hall has made the most of his money. He has had his reverses, as have had other farmers, but he has been generally very successful. He has erected a large, substantial residence, barns, and sheds for the protection of live stock. Mr. Hall was united in marriage, in 1875, to Miss Belle Hooker, of Peacham, Vermont, a daughter of Sanford Hooker, Esq.This union has been blessed with six children Scott, Jay, Florence, Lilla, Hattie and Ellen E. Mr. .Hall is an excellent judge of livestock, and feeds from two to four car loads annually. Like many other men who have made the most brilliant successes, Mr. Hall began his career on a very limited capi tal, but industry and perseverance made up what was lacking in another direction.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 789.

ISAAC P. HALLOCK, JR., a leading farmer of Audubon County, Iowa, was born in in Kendall County, Illinois, March 21, 1840. He is the youngest son of Isaac P. and Abigail H. (Smith) Hallock, who were among the first settlers of Oakfield, Audubon County. Isaac P. Hallock, Sr., was born in Clinton County, New York, in 1802; his father was Israel Peter Hallock, of Scotch and French extraction. Abigail H. Hallock was born in the State of Massachusetts, in the year 1800, and died in the year 1885; she was the mother of eight children, six of whom lived to maturity Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Diss more; Julia A., wife of E. D. Bradley; Rich ard S., John A.; Sarah M., wife of J. H. Basham, and Isaac Peter, the subject of this sketch. He was fourteen years of age when his parents removed to Earlville, Illinois, in which place they lived two years. In the fall of 1856 they came to Audubon County, Iowa, and settled on a tract of land which is now the old town site of Oakfield, as platted by Richard S. Hallock and E. D. Bradley in 1857. Isaac P. Hallock, Sr., erected the first house in the village; soon after coming to the county he was elected judge for one term; he was then elected justice of the peace, a position he held for several terms. He was appointed post master of Oakfield, and held the office for many years. Mr. Hallock is still living, in his eightyseventh year. Isaac P. Hallock, Jr., received only the advantages of a common school education. The schoolhouse at Oak field was a cabin of rude construction, which was afterward replaced by a frame building. At the age of nineteen years he assumed the care and responsibility of his father's farm, as his father was at that time afflicted with asthma. He was very successful in the man agement of the place, and at the same time made some profitable trades in livestock. He then embarked in the mercantile business at Oakfield, being associated with I. H. Jenkins and D. W. Powers; this firm continued to transact business successfully for five years, and at the expiration of that time Mr. Hal lock purchased the interest of both his part ners and carried on the business alone. After a prosperous career of several years Mr. Hallock sold his stock to T. E. Cotton, now deceased. He then bought a stock of goods owned by his brother, J. A. Hallock, at Exira, and managed that store for several years. At one time he also owned a stock of hardware and farm implements at Brayton, Iowa. In the early spring of 1881 Mr. Hallock opened a hard ware store in Carson, Pottawattamie County, Iowa, having as a partner L. L. Archer; they afterward sold out and invested the proceeds of the sale in Salt Lake City real estate. Mr. Hallock is now largely engaged in feeding sheep for Chicago markets; he also feeds large numbers of cattle and hogs. Of later years he has given especial attention to the breeding of heavy draft horses. His landed estate now covers 2,400 acres, and with the direction of this and the care of the stock his time is fully taken up. Mr. Hallock was married in his twentyeighth year to Malinda A. Norton, of Oakfield, daughter of William C. Norton, who came to Oakfield in 1856. They have had born to them seven children, four of whom are living Abbie H., Keese C., Alice and Isaac Percy; three died in infancy. Mr. Hal lock has been identified with almost every enterprise that had for its object the advance ment and growth of the town and progress of the community. He was one of the origina tors, directors and stockholders of the Atlantic National Bank at Atlantic, Iowa, and held his connection with that institution for many years. At one time he was owner of the Oakfield flouringmills. He is a staunch member of the Republican party; has held the offices of township clerk, trustee, and been a member of the board of supervisors of Au dubon County, Iowa, and township assessor at one time.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 696.

NATHANIEL HAMLIN It is a privi lege that many years hence will not be vouchsafed to men to hear the history of pioneer days from the lips of the worthy old pioneers themselves. Nathaniel Hamlin, the first settler of Audubon County, Iowa, was born in Lewis County, Kentucky, March 13, 1814. His father, William Hamlin, was also a native of Kentucky, and was one of the first settlers of Lewis County. His grand father, John Hamlin, of Scotch descent, emi grated from New Jersey to Kentucky. His mother was Mary Smith, a daughter of James Smith, Esq., a native of England, a sailor by occupation.After her marriage to William Hamlin they settled in Lewis County, Ken tucky, and there dwelt until the death of William Hamlin, which occurred in 1836 the wife and seven children surviving. Some years after her husband's death Mrs. Hamlin came to Iowa, and made her home with her son Nathaniel.She died at the advanced age of 100 years, one month, and a few days. Nathaniel Hamlin was married in Vermillion County, Illinois, April 9, 1840, to Margaret Poague, daughter of Ellen andMargaret (Terrill) Poague. Mrs. Hamlin was born in Greenup County, Kentucky, August 12, 1824, but when she was two years old her parents removed to Vermillion County, Illi nois. Nathaniel and Margaret Hamlin are the parents of twelve children Mary M., wife of Isaac Thomas; Hannah M., wife of C. C. Hawk; Sarah B., wife of B. F. Thomas; Malinda C., wife of William Radcliffe; Will iam Allen, married Florence A. Lewis; Mar tha J., wife of E. S. Calph; Eliza (deceased); Susan P., wife of John V. Plantz; Clarinda H., wife of John M. Allen; Nathaniel D. married Elva Crane; Fernando B., married Emma E. Kilworth; Robert E., married Sarah Wheeler. Mrs. Hamlin's grandfather, Robert Poague, was a native of Scotland, and her grandmother, Rebecca Poague, was born in Ireland.After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Hamlin settled in Vermillion County, Illinois, and there resided until 1844; they then removed to Mahaska County, Iowa, and lived there seven years. September 10, 1851, they came to their present farm being the first actual settlers in the county of Audu bon.Mr. Hamlin first entered 160 acres of land, selecting that on the waters of Trouble some Creek, which is skirted by a beautiful natural grove. To the south stretches a rich andfertile prairie, making an ideal farm. land.Here the pioneer settled and planned his future home. His first house wasa double log cabin of two rooms, but these two rooms had the capacity of accommodating a goodmany persons. This house was for many years the travelers' home, and numbers of people today remember the generous hos pitality extended by the worthy host and his faithful wife.The first barn was erected the following fall.It and a corncrib, erected at the same time, still stand as monuments to those early days.Mr. Hamlin went to work in earnest, broke out a part of his new farm, and proceeded to place it under cultivation. lie found a ready market for most of his prod uce, especially corn, among the emigrants who were journeying still further westward. During the years when the tide was at its height, Mr. Hamlin remembers many times when forty or fifty teams would camp in his grove onaccount of the high waters of Troublesome Creek. Mr. Hamlin was elected the first county treasurer, an office he held for eight years.During a part of that time he acted as recorder.He was the first post master appointed at Hamlin's Grove post. office, and held the position until the election of Abraham Lincoln.He has always been an oldstyle Jacksonian Democrat, and was appointed postmaster under General Taylor's administration. For two years he was county supervisor. Instead of Mr. Hamlin's seek ing the office it sought him, and politics was in a healthier condition than it is today. During the eight years he acted as treasurer of the county he kept his money in the house. On being asked by the writer if he were not afraid of having the money stolen, he replied that it was quite safepeople in those days being generally honest.Mr. Hamlin built the first schoolhouse in the county, and he and one of his neighbors furnished eleven children, and paid the teacher. Judge D. M. Harris held the first court of the county in this same schoolhouse. Mr. Hamlin was fond of chasing deer and wolf, and always kept a good number of hounds for the purpose, and to this day he keeps three fine hounds for chasing wolves. From the modest beginning of 160 acres Mr. Hamlin has increased his landed estate to 1,400 acres, besides having given to each of his children from ninety to 100 acres.This in itself is a record of in dustry, thrift and wisemanagement. Mr. Hamlin has been actively engaged in feeding livestock, and has annually shipped from one to four carloads of livestock to the Chicago markets.Although in his seventyfifth year he is sound in mind and body, and attends to all his business with the same energy and push as in younger days. He and his estima ble wife have journeyed many years together, and peace and happiness have been their re ward. They have sixtythree grandchildren and four greatgrandchildren.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 709.

HENRY W. HANNA, attorney at law, Audubon, Iowa, was born in Licking County, Ohio, in the village of Utica, December 25, 1847. His father, Andrew G. Hanna, was one of the early settlers in Ohio. He was married to Miss Lavina Sharp, of Wayne County, Ohio, and they settled in Licking County, afterward removing to Rich land County; from this county they came to Johnson County, Iowa, in 1854, and stopped at what was then known as Clark's Mills, now Coralville. Here they lived until Sep tember, 1855, and then moved to Iowa City, where they resided until March, 1856, when they removed to Benton County, Iowa.Here they went on a new place, to which they added many improvements. In 1875 they removedtoMarengo, where Andrew G. Hanna died, December 30, 1880. His wife, who still survives him, makes her home with her daughter in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. She is the mother of six children, four sons and two daughters. Henry W. Hanna is the third child. His early education was received in the district schools of Benton County.In 1866 he entered the State University at Iowa City, and graduated from the academical de partment in 1872.He spent the winters of 1867, 1868 and 1869 in teaching school. In September, 1872, Mr. Hanna went to Cass County, Iowa, and began the study of law in Atlantic with his brother, J. T. Hanna. He was admitted to the bar in March, 1874. In September of the same year he moved to Ex ira, Audubon County, and commenced the practice of law. In October, 1879, he went to Audubon and opened an office alone, and has since been engaged in an active practice of his profession. Mr. Hanna was married September, 1883, to Miss Jennie Brayton, of Audubon, a native of Wisconsin.They have two children Lena L. and Ruby M. Mr. Hanna was elected county attorney in the fall of 1886, and reelected in 1888. He owns a good farm, which he rents. He was initiated in Exodus Lodge, No. 342, A. F. & A. M., at Exira, and became a member of Veritas Lodge at Audubon in 1882. He is also a member of Godfrey Comnmandery, No. 44, being one of its charter members, and re corder since its organization.During his residence in Cass County he was appointed deputy sheriff, and served under E. E. Her bert and J. S. Presnall.He has served as secretary of the Blue Lodge for two years. He has a select law library which cost $1,500, and is one of the best in the western part of the State, and a complete set of abstracts of all lands in Audubon County.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 717.

HANS PETER HANSEN, a prosperous and intelligent Dane, residing in Gray, Iowa, was born in the city of Copen hagen, Denmark, November 25, 1857. He is the oldest of four children, two sons and two daughters, his parents being Christien and Anna C. (Anderson) Hansen, who are still living in Copenhagen, the father being a mechanic by trade. Hans Peter Hansen re ceived a good commonschool education in his native country, and then went to learn the trade of an engineer, serving two years. Desirous of seeing the new world he set sail in 1881, and after a voyage of thirtytwo days he landed in the city of New York. He continued his journey to Minnesota, stopping at Albert Lea five months. On coming to Gray he entered the employ of Mr. George Gray as engineer in his elevator, a position he still holds.In February, 1888, Mr. Han sen made a visit to his native land, remain ing among the scenes of his childhood four months.Returning to Gray he resumed his position as stationary engineer. In June, 1889, he was married to Miss Martha Jacobs, a native of Denmark, who came to America in 1888. He is now living in Gray in a comfortable home, which he owns.He also owns other property in the village, which he rents. Mr. Hansen is an industrious citizen, and by perseverance and economy he has ac cumulated some property. He began with out capital, except his pluck and energy and determination to succeed, and we anticipate for him a prosperous future.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 812.

GEORGE HARDENBROOK was born in Knox County, Ohio, December 4, 1842, and is the son of Ambrose and Hannah (Axtell) Hardenbrook. The father was a native of Pennsylvania, and the mother was of English descent, and both died when our subject was an infant. Ludwig Harden brook, the grandfather of George Harden brook, was one of the early settlers of Man hattan Island; he was of Hollandish descent, and served in the war of the Revolution. At the close of this war he was paid in a land warrant, which he located in western Penn sylvania; he lived upon this land for several years, and then removed to Jefferson County, Ohio.He served in the war of 1812, and soon after moved to Knox County, Ohio, re siding there until his death, which occurred at the age of eightynine years. George Hardenbrook went to live with an aunt after the death of his parents, and later made his home with a sister. At the age of fifteen years he started out to support himself, hav ing received acommonschool education. Afterward he attended three termsof a graded school, at the same time working at the carpenter's trade.This avocationhe followed until the breaking out of the late civil war, when he enlisted in the Twentieth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Company G, being one of the first to respond to the call for men to go to the defense of the nation's flag.He was sent into West Virginia under General McClelland's command. While in the serv ice he was taken sick with the measles and thrown into the hospital. He was dismissed before he was cured, as the hospital was over crowded, and suffered a great deal of expos ure, from which he was a long time in recovering.He was ordered to Columbus, Ohio,and was there mustered out of the service.In January, 1864, he enlisted as a mechanic in the quartermaster's department in the Army of the Cumberland. After one month's service he was promoted to the fore manship of this work. On his return to Monroe County, Ohio, he accepted the posi tion of deputy sheriff, and held the place for three months, when he went to Omaha, Ne braska, and thence to Jasper County, Iowa, in which place he worked at the carpenter's trade for two seasons. Mr. Hardenbrook was married to Miss Rebecca J. Bundy, of Jasper County, who was a native of Highland County, Ohio, and a daughter of Caleb and Sophrona Bundy. After his marriage Mr. Hardenbrook embarked in the grocery busi ness at Prairie City, Jasper County, Iowa, remaining there two years. He then removed to Kansas, thence to Nodaway County, Mis souri, and thence to Mahaska County, Iowa, in which county, at Leighton, he opened a drug store.In a short time he removed this stock to Exira, Iowa, in September, 1872, being one of the first druggists in the place. In 1876 he was appointed postmaster under General Grant's administration, and held the position seven years, at the end of which time he resigned.He carries a full line of drugs and medicines and fancy goods. In 1880 he was elected a member of the school board, and continued in this position until 1888, when he resigned. He is a member of the O. P. Morton Post, No. 35, G. A. R, and of the A. O. U. W., of which he was first Master.He is a charter member of Ex odus Lodge, No. 342,A. F. & A. M., of the chapterand commandery. Mr.and Mrs. Hardenbrook are the parents of five children Burton, Blanche, Lena, Edith and Ross.Caleb Bundy, father of Mrs. Harden brook, was one of those men whose life is a sweet memory to his friends. He was born of Quaker parents, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, and was of the Quaker faith until his marriage, at which time he abandoned the society on account of having married out side its membership.He was one of the northern abolitionists who assisted the blacks in their flight to the north, and he lived to see that horrible institution wiped from this nation. After his marriage he joined the Methodist Episcopal church, and was ordained as a minister. He preached in Illinois and Iowa, at the same time carrying on the blacksmith's trade. He took an active interest in the politics of the county, and was elected upon the Republican ticket to repre sent the county in the XIII th Assembly, a position he filled with marked ability. In 1872 Mr. Bandy removed to Audubon County, Iowa, making his home with Mr. and Mrs. Hardenbrook at Exira, at which place he held the position of postmaster until his death, which occurred in March, 1876. lie was a man who commanded the respect of all parties, and at his death was without an enemy. He devoted his leisure hours to looking after the poor, and in performing many acts of charity.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 759.

SAMUEL HAYS was born in Westmore land County, Pennsylvania, November 28, 1844, and is the son of Fred and Mary (Robins) Hays, natives of the State of Pennsylvania. When Samuel was eighteen months oldhis parents removed to Rock Island County, Illinois. There he passed his early youth, being reared to the occupation of a farmer. He obtained his education in the district schools and the graded schools of Cordova.He was entering his second term in the latter place when he enlisted in the United States service in the Fifteenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, Company D. After six months he was honorably discharged, and re turned to Rock Island County, and remained there until 1867, engaged in farming during the summer season and in teaching school in the winter. In the fall of 1867 Mr. Hays came to Iowa, and for several years he was occupied in teaching in the winter season, and working at the carpenter's trade and at the shoemaker's trade during the rest of the year. For three years after coming to the State he made his home in Henry County, after which he removed to Marshall County, remaining there four years. He was married September 6, 1872, to Miss Ellen L. Clark, daughter of G. C. and Phoebe A. (Rodgers) Clark, who was born in Marshalltown, Iowa, July 17, 1854. They are the parents of nine children Frew L.,MaudA., WillieA., Gabriel C., Samuel E., Miles F., James A., Mary M. and Alice L., all at home. In 1875 Mr. Hays removed his family to Audubon County, and settled on a farm of eighty acres in Greeley Township, which was then wild prairie land.He has added eighty acres to his first purchase, and has made many valua ble improvements,erecting a goodframe residence, and barns for stock and grain. He affiliates with the Democratic party, but votes for the man that he judges best qualified to fill the position.He takes an active interest in the political affairs of the county, and has filled most of the township offices. He is a member of the K. of L.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 734.

ROBERT HENDERSON, a thrifty and prosperous agriculturist of Cameron Township, was born in the State of Vermont, near St. Johnsbury, October 11, 1851.His father, William Henderson, a native of Scotland, came to America in his youth.His grandfather, William Hender son, was also a native of Scotland. The mother of Robert Henderson was Hannah Gray, a daughter of William Gray, and a sister of George Gray, of Audubon County. She died when Robert was eight years old. The father is still living, at the age of seventy five years, on the old homestead where our subject was born.Robert remained under the parental roof until his twentieth year, receiving the advantage of a districtschool education, and also a few terms at the Peacham Academy. After leaving school the spirit of youth would no longer be re strained, and he journeyed to the west, seek ing the best in store for him. His first sojourn was in Stark County, Illinois, where he remained one year. He then went to Adair County, Iowa, and thence to Audubon County, taking charge ofGeorge Gray's ranch, which he opened up and managed for four years. Within this period he was mar ried to Miss Ellen Evans, of Peacham, Ver mont, a daughter ofCharlesEvans, Esq. After his marriage Mr. Henderson purchased 160 acres of land which was new and unim proved. The courage of the pioneer can scarcely be appreciated in this day, when there is so little that is new; but Mr. Hen derson was equal to the occasion, and began with a will to claim from Nature all that she would yield.He broke out the farm, made many valuable improvements, and added to it from time to time until he now owns 400 acres, all under a high state of cultivation. He pays special attention to feeding hogs and cattle, shipping several cars annually. He also has some very fine horses for farm use.In 1888 he erected a large barn with sheds attached, having a capacity for seventy five head of cattle and twentyfive head of horses. The confidence reposed in Mr. Hen derson is attested in the fact that for several years he has served as township trustee. He began his career at the bottom round of the ladder, but by energy, industry and untiring effort he has accumulated a good competence. Mr. Henderson is of a genial, frank disposi tion, and during his residence in the county has won a host of friends.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 820.

DANIEL W. HENDRICKS is a success ful farmer of Viola Township, Audu bon County, who was born in Macoupin County,Illinois, December 5, 1834.His father, William W. Hendricks, a native of North Carolina, removed with his parents to Kentucky when nine years of age.He was there married to Miss Susanna Sears, a native of Kentucky, and a daughter of Samuel Sears, of German descent. The grandfather of Dan iel W. Hendricks was William Hendricks, of Hollandish and German extraction. He was an early settler of New Jersey, and a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Four of his broth ers also fought in the Revolution. Daniel W. Hendricks is the seventh of a family of nine children, all of whom lived to maturity Malinda C., Granville S., Melvina F., died in 1888; Sarah C., died in 1887; John T., William W., Daniel W., Samuel M. and Mar tin V. All were married and raised families, with the exception of John T. The subject of this notice was nine years old when the family started to Marion County, Iowa. The father died in Lee County in 1843, while en route to Marion County.The winter was passed in Jefferson County, and in the spring the journey was continued to Marion County The family settled near Pella, and there Dan iel remained three and a half years. He then removed to Polk County with his parents and settled eight miles east of Des Moines, remaining there six years. He then went to Decatur County, Iowa, with his parents, and there made his home for seven years.At the end of that time he went to Jasper County and settled near Prairie City, on a farm, where he lived fourteen years.He sold out in the spring of 1880 and came to Audubon County, locating on his present farm, on section 13 Viola Township. There are 280 acres in the place, forty of which had been homesteaded and improved by Albert Hocket.Mr. Hen dricks was united in marriage, in 1861, to Martha, oldest daughter of Henderson and Eliza (Hart) Taylor. Mrs. Hendricks was born in Kentucky, and removed with her parents to Decatur County, Iowa, when a child of twelve years.Five children have been born of this marriage -- William H., Granville E., Eliza E., wife of C. A. Yaager; Charles B. and Susanna. Mr. Hendricks has served as township trustee, and is also trustee of the Viola Cemetery. He and his wife are members of the German Baptist church. In politics he is a staunch Democrat.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 770.

FRANK M. HENSLEY, an enterprising farmer of Greeley Township, Audubon County, is the seventh child of J. J. and Martha J. (Popejay) Hensley. He was born in Polk County, August 31, 1858, and passed his early childhood in his native place. When he was ten years of age his parents removed to Jasper County, where they resided three years. In 1871 they came to Audubon County and settled in Exira Township; there he was reared to the occupation of a farmer, and attended the common schools.In the year 1887 he took a trip through the west to California, and remained one year. He re turned to his old home in January, 1888, and entered into the mercantile business, following the same for one year, but finding indoor life did not agree with his health retired to his farm in January, 1889. April 11, 1888, he was united in marriage to Ella, daughter of Perry and Barbara Parrott; she was born in Dubuque County, Iowa, April 19, 1866. Mr. and Mrs. Hensley are the parents of one child John J., born February 25, 1889. In January, 1889, Mr. Hensley moved to his present home, a farm of eighty acres, in section 19, Greeley Township, which he has owned since 1882; the land was raw prairie when it came into his possession, but has been converted into one of the finest farms in that part of the county. He also owns eighty acres in section 20, Greeley Township. He has a fine frame residence on his home farm, and has made numerous other valuable improvements. Mr. Hensley devotes himself to farming and stockraising exclusively; he is one of the live, energetic farmers in the county, and enjoys the esteem and respect of a wide circle of friends. Politically he is a staunch supporter of the issues of the Democratic party.He has served as township assessor.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 734.

JOHN J. HENSLEY, a prominent farmer and stockdealer in Exira Township, was born in Chillicothe, Ross County, Ohio, September 11, 1819. His father, Jacob Hensley, was a soldier in the war of 1812, and died when John J. was a small boy. His mother was a Miss Sarah Wilfong, of German ancestry, a daughter of John Wilfong, who served as a soldier in the Revolutionary war; she also died when John J. was a child, and he went to live with his uncle, Christopher Wilfong, with whom he remained until his death; he was then thrown upon his own resources, and began the struggle of life alone. During his residence with his uncle he had attended school in the winter and worked on the farm in the summer. In 1844 he was married to Miss Martha Popejay, of Fayette County, Ohio, and after his marriage he settled on a farm in Fayette County; this he carried on successfully for a number of years. In 1856 he removed to Franklin County, Iowa, and there began dealing in livestock in a small way, his means being somewhat limited. After a few years he removed from Franklin County to Polk County, and settled on a farm south of Des Moines; here he engaged in raising and shipping stock extensively until 1869, when he moved to Jasper County and engaged in the same enterprise until 1871. He then sold out and moved to Audubon County, purchasing a farm one mile south of Exira, on the Nishnabotna River; this is one of the most desirable farms in this section, being of a very fertile soil and under high cultivation; there is a beautiful, natural grove north of the residence and barns, adding much to the attractiveness of the place, and affording a most excellent shelter from the piercing winds of winter. The farm is one of the oldest the neighborhood, and was improved by Jacob Andrews, and at the time of purchase by Mr. Hensley contained 200 acres. Since his residence on this farm Mr. Hensley has devoted the greater portion of his time to buying, selling and shipping livestock, while his sons have managed the agricultural department of farming. From long experience in the business Mr. Hensley has become a most reliable judge of cattle; of late years he has also bought and sold hogs quite extensively, shipping them to eastern markets. During their residence in Polk County Mrs. Hensley was called from this life, in the year 1869; she was a devoted wife and mother, and at her death left eight children -- Leroy M., William I., Morgan, Martha A., wife of Daniel B. Hayes (Mrs. Hayes is now deceased); Fanny May (deceased), Frank M., John I. and Charles F. Mr. Hensley was married to his second wife in Polk County; she was Mrs. Maria Eckles, widow of Rev. William Eckles, and daughter of Henry Reichert, of Indiana, a resident of Polk County, Iowa.Two chil dren have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Hensley Martha A. and Agnes. Mr. Hensley has not only been prominent in business circles, but he has also taken a lively interest in the elevation of the morals of the community; he is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church, with which he has long been identified contributing largely of his time and means for its support; he has served as trustee and steward of the church. Politically he has long been identified with the Democratic party.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 743.

LEROY M. HENSLEY, the oldest child of J. J. and Martha (Popejay) Hensley, was born in Fayette County, Ohio, December 28, 1845. He was reared in his native county until his tenth year, when his parents removed to Iowa, and settled in the northern part of the State.In the year 1870 they went to Audubon County, and settled on the farm of J. J. Hensley.Leroy M. remained with his parents until 1872; Feb mary 14 of that year he was married to Miss Elizabeth Pilmer, daughter of Philip and Alice (Sherriff)Pilmer, who was born in England, of Scotch ancestry, November 30, 1847; she came to America in 1850. They are the parents of six children Philip (de ceased), Martha Alice (deceased), Charles B., Walter A., Elmer L. (deceased), andJames L.Soon after their marriage they removed to their new home, a tract of 120 acres which Mr. Hensley had previously purchased. A frame building 14 x 16 feet was erected, in which they took up their abode before it was completed. They were anxious to establish themselves, and unhesitatingly faced all the hardships encountered by settlers in a new country. The success they have had is fully demonstrated by taking a look at their finely improved farm.There is a fine twostory frame residence, and also buildings for stock and grain. Mr. Hensley has been an active, enterprising citizen, always aiding and encour aging every enterprise tending to advance the interests of the community in which he lives. Politically he is a staunch Democrat, and has represented his township as clerk and as a member of the school board. Mrs. Hensley is a memberof the Presbyterian church, while her husband was reared in the Meth odist Episcopal church. The family are among the most worthy and respected citizens of the county.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 778.

WILLIAM E. HENSLEY, farmer and stockraiser,of Greeley Township, was born in Fayette County, Ohio, July 27, 1848. He is the son of J. J. and Martha J. (Popejay) Hensley, who removed to Iowa when William E. was eight years of age. They first located in the northern part of the State, and after making several changes they settled in Audubon County, in the fall of 1870. In the spring of 1871 William E. Hensley, in partnership with his brother, L. M. Hensley, purchased 160 acres in Greeley Township. They continued to buy land until at one time they owned 680 acres in one body. They afterward sold forty acres, retaining just one section, which they divided equally in 1884. They were the first settlers in this part of the county, and the land was wild and unimproved.When Mr. Hensley came to the county he was unmarried, and made his home with his brother. June 27, 1875, he was wedded to Miss Laura Anderson, daughter of David L. and Mary L. Anderson; she was born in Audubon, County, April 27, 1856, and died March3, 1885. Five children were born of this marriage -- Clyde, Vernie, MaryE., Clarence Edward and Flora Ina. Mr. Hensley was again married February 20, 1887, to Miss Minnie Dettmann, who was born in Germany, and came to America with her parents in 1881. This union has resulted in one child -- Hazel M. Mr. Hensley makes a specialty of stock raising, and also buys and ships livestock extensively. He also owns a livery barn in Exira, but has recently disposed of the stock. His farm is under good cultivation, and is well improved in the way of buildings. Politically he is a staunch Democrat. He has served two terms as county supervisor with credit to himself and the satisfaction of his constituents. He has also represented his township in most of the different offices. Mr. Hensley is a selfmade man, and has arrived at his present position through his own efforts. He occupies an enviable place in the county, socially and financially a just reward of in dustry and perseverance.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 777.

JOHN A. HICKS, an active farmer and stockraiser of Exira Township, was born in Canada West, February 11, 1843. He was reared on a farm, but when he had reached his nineteenth year he was bound to learn the blacksmith's trade, and served an apprenticeship of three years. He is the son of James and Margaret (Connon) Hicks, the mother only surviving. After he had finished his trade he worked as a journeyman for seven years in the State of Wisconsin, having come to the United States in his twenty second year. In June, 1871, he came to Audubon County, stopping at Exira. There he had a shop for eight or nine years, doing work for the country for miles around. He continued this occupation industriously and with profit to himself. At the expiration of nine years he bought a farm of 200 acres, west of Exira.He has placed most of this under cultivation, and has a fine young grove of thirty acres.Hehas erected a good, substantial, two-story frame house, which is nearly surrounded by a natural grove, and other buildings necessary for the protection of livestock.In 1874 Mr. Hicks was married to Mary B., the only daughter of Samuel and Gertrude Smith. Mrs. Hicks was born in Ross County, Ohio, January 6, 1854, and when she was three years of age her parents removed to Audubon County, Iowa. To Mr. and Mrs. Hicks have been born five children -- James A., Samuel A., Ethel G., Clarence and John. Mr. Hicks began the struggle of life without a dollar, but by pluck, hard work and economy he has laid something by for a rainy day. His political sympathies are with the Republican party. His brothers and sisters all reside in Canada.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 749.

JACOB H. HILL has been identified with the interests of Audubon County since the year 1872. Unlike many of the pioneers, he was born in the State of Iowa, Cedar County. His parents are John F. and Eliza (May) Hill, natives of the State of Pennsylvania. Jacob H. was two years of age when his parents removed to Johnson County, Iowa, where they remained until he was fifteen years old. On coming to the county the family first settled in Exira Township, and later in Greeley Township, while the parents now reside in Audubon Town ship. Mr. Hill was reared to the life of a farmer, and obtained his education in the common schools. In the year 1882 he bought an eighty-acre tract of wild land in section 28, Greeley Township, which he has improved and placed under good cultivation. He has a comfortable frame residence and the necessary buildings for stock and grain. He has done much toward the upbuilding of that part of the county, and well deserves the esteem in which he is held. The marriage of Jacob H. Hill to Miss Evaline Young occurred September 29, 1882. She is a daughter of Henry and Charlotte Young, and was born in Illinois in June, 1860. They are the parents of one child -- Flossie. In political thought and action Mr. Hill is Republican. By upright and honorable deal ings, by industry and perseverance, he has won a reputation, and has acquired a property of which any man might well be proud.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 781.

CHARLES HOFFMAN, an active and successful farmer of Viola Towship, was born in Holstein, Germany, December 3, 1844. he is the son of Charles and Celie Hoffman, who emigrated to the United States when our subject was four years old. They landed at the city of New Orleans, and cameup the river to Davenport, Iowa, where they settled. The father was a fisherman by occupation. He died in the year 1880, and the mother died in the year 1878. In his childhood Charles spent little time in school, as he was needed to assist his father. In later years he went to work on a farm for a man named Bennett, on condition that he was to go to school a portion of the time. This contract resulted in three years' work and one week's schooling, a deprivation to which there is none other equal. Charles returned to Davenport and remained there a year, being unable to work. In August, 1862, at the age of eighteen years, he enlisted in the Union army, in Company G, Twentieth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, and was sent to St. Louis, Missouri, thence to Arkansas, and thence to Vicksburg, where he took part in the siege. In 1863 his regiment was sent to Port Hudson, and there did duty as guards and in attending the sick for three months. He was then ordered to New Orleans, thence to Mustang Island. After six months he was sent to Texas, being stationed at Browns ville. His next order was to go to Mobile Bay, and after some skirmishing there he was mustered out, receiving his discharge at Clin ton, Iowa, in July, 1865. He then returned to Davenport and there worked two years in a limekiln. In the spring of 1871 he came to Audubon County and settled on his present farm, which was then raw prairie. He first bought eighty acres, and now owns 200 acres, well improved. He was married in 1866 to Miss Mary J. Baker, a daughter of Robert and Eliza (Owen) Baker, of Davenport, Iowa. By this marriage seven children have been born -- Charles O., William H., Christopher A., Robert L., James, Roy V. and Lillie May. By industry and good management Mr. Hoffman has acquired a valuable property, and his honorable dealing has won the confidence and respect of all who know him. Contributed by Linda Hoffman lindaleehoffman@ix.netcom.com.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 774.

JUDGE JAMES HOLLIDAY, of West Exira, one of the early settlers of the county, was born near Wheeling, West Virginia, April 16, 1821. He is a son of' William Holliday, a native of Virginia; the Hollidays were among the first settlers of West Virginia, their ancestors leaving New England, and settling in that State. The grandfather of James Holliday was a soldier in the Revolutionary war, and endured all the extreme hardships of that hostile period, having no shoes to wear often during the cold seasons, and living for days and weeks together on roast potatoes. His courage and faithfulness were rewarded by this government, as he was receiving a pension at the time of his death. William Holliday's wife, the mother of James Holliday, was Mary Campbell, a native of Connecticut; she was the daughter of Richard Campbell, of the old straightjacket Presbyterian stock. When she was a child her parents removed to Virginia. She was the mother of four children, three boys and one girl. William Holliday's first wife was a Miss Harvey, and three daughters were born by this marriage, all of whom lived to maturity. Judge James Holliday, the subject of this notice, was the oldest child of the second marriage. His brother, Richard C., was a prominent attorney of Moundsville, West Virginia, and his other brother, William, was a merchant residing in the State of Illinois.James Holliday was reared in Ohio County, West Virginia, until he was twelve years of age; his father then removed to Marshall County, West Virginia, settling on a farm near Moundsville. Here James attended school, and afterward taught for two terms; he also engaged in teaching after he came to the State of Iowa. In 1861 he was appointed postmaster under Lincoln's administration, at Moundsville, West Virginia; he held this office until the close of the war, when he resigned and entered into other business; he had bought some coal land in Belmont County, Ohio, which he afterward opened, and sold at a considerable profit. In the month of July, 1866, he re moved to Henry County, Iowa, settling on a farm nine miles northeast of Mount Pleasant; here he remained two years, and then sold the place, removing to Polk County, and settling on Mud Creek, ten miles east of Des Moines; here his wife died; her maiden name was Mary Jane Whittingharn, and she was married in 1841, and left at her death five children George W., James (deceased), Amanda, wife of John A. Jones; Mary E., the wife of George Smith; Estelle, wife of Charles Smith.Mr. Holliday married his present wife, Sarah Andrews, in 18; she was born in Oxford County, Maine, and is a daughter of Isaac and Sally (Kimball) Andrews.In 1868 he moved to Guthrie County, and after a residence of four years, he moved to Audubon County, and settled on a farm two miles south of Exira; here he remained ten years, and at the end of this time he was elected justice of the peace, filling this office six years. He was then appointed coroner, and served two years. He owns a large two-story residence in West Exira, and ninety acres of land, which he rents.In political matters Mr. Holliday votes the Republican ticket; but often when running for office, he receives as many Democratic votes as Republican votes.Mrs. Holliday's first husband was Samuel Ayer; her parents are both deceased. Mr. Holliday owns eight lots in Douglas, Wyoming Territory, which is valuable property, as Douglas is the county seat of Converse County.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 756.

JOHN D. HOLMES, physician and surgeon, Audubon, Iowa, is a native of Ohio, born in Tuscarawas County, near Newcommerstown, July 1, 1849. He was the fifth of a family of eight children, seven of whom were girls. His father was James Holmes, also a native of Ohio, born in Belmont County in 1818, a farmer by occupation. His mother was Elizabeth Dillahay, a native of Maryland, who died in 1882; she and her husband were among the pioneers of Ohio. The family moved by wagon to Wayne County, Iowa, in 1858, where the parents passed the remainder of their lives. The boyhood of the Doctor was passed in Wayne County, attending the district school and working on the farm, where he lived until he was seventeen years old, he then began teaching school in Lucas County, Iowa.Afterward he entered Simpson College, pursuing his studies three years. In 1870 he entered the office of Dr. C. W. Davis, under whom he read medicine three years. He then entered the Medical College of Ohio at Cincinnati, where he took a course of lectures.He then came to Audubon County and commenced his practice. The following winter he went to Keokuk, Iowa, and entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons, from which he graduated in 1876. He returned to Indianola, where he formed a copartnership with Dr. J. D. Mc Cleary, which continued for one year. He then returned to Hamlin, Iowa, and resumed his practice there. In the fall of 1878 he removed to the new town of Audubon, where he has been actively engaged in his profession ever since, with the exception of seven months spent in Little Rock, Arkansas. He is a member of the Botna Valley Medical Society, of the State Medical Society, and of the American Medical Society. He was elected mayor of the town of Audubon, serving three years, and succeeding E. J. Freeman. He was one of the electors from the Ninth Congressional District, and cast the electoral vote for James G. Blame and John A. Logan. He is a member of Veritas Lodge, No. 392, A. F. & A. M., of which he is now Master. He is a member of Amity Chapter, No. 93, R. A. M., and of Godfrey Commandery, No. 44, K. T.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 711.

APOLLONIUS B. HOUSTON, a pioneer of Audubon County, Iowa, was born in the State of South Carolina, February 16, 1823. At the age of nine years he was taken to Tennessee, whither his parents had removed,andsettled in Maury County. Oswald Houston, his father, was born in South Carolina, in 1798. He engaged in the mercantile trade at Williamsport, Tennessee, and on his removal to Atlanta, Georgia, he was occupied with the same business.He died in Atlanta, Georgia, June 11, 1861. Oswald Houston's wife was Anna Louisa Shaw, a daughter of Anna Fardoo. She was born in 1803. They had born to them ten children, six of whom lived to maturity. Apollonius B. was the eldest child. He passed the greater part of his youth in Tennessee, and received his education in the subscription schools. He was a partner of his father in the mercantile business in Atlanta, Georgia, and remained there until 1853, when he made a tour of the State of Texas and the Pacific States, after which he returned to Tennessee. In 1856 he removed to Audubon County, Iowa, in wagons, covering the journey in seven weeks. He had started to California, but was prevented by the government on account of the depredations committed by the Indians. Mr. Houston settled near Hamlin's Grove, and was one of the first settlers in Exira, building the first dwelling house in the village. He also assisted in the erection of the first school house in the place. In 1844 Mr. Houston was married to Nancy Bridges, of Maury County, Tennessee, a daughter of James C. Bridges, by whom ten children were born, all of whom have lived to maturity -- Henry B., Udora I., now Mrs. W. F. Stotts; Louisa B., the wife of M. J. Ragan; W. W. Houston, O. J. Houston, Flora D., wife of David B. Lyon; Mary L., wife of Thomas Bryant; Charles W. and Robert L. Houston, and Lida A., wife of George Henshaw, and the young est child. Mr. Houston has filled the offices of county clerk, county judge, county treasurer, and many minor offices. For the last six years he has served as justice of the peace. He has been a member of the Masonic order for forty years. He has served as mayor of Exira for two terms. During the past twelve years Mr. Houston has dealt in real estate. He owns land in the States of Nebraska and Missouri. He built the Houston House in Exira in 1871, and was proprietor of the hotel until August, 1888. Mr. Houston's mother died November 21, 1888, at Atlanta, Georgia.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 721.

OSWALD J. HOUSTON was born in Waynesboro, Wayne County, Tennessee, February 13, 1855. When he was three years old his parents removed to Iowa, settling at Hamlin's Grove, being among the earliest settlers in the county. He is the fourth of a family of ten children, and is a son of A. B. and Nancy (Bridges) Houston, both natives of the State of Georgia, who now reside in Exira, Audubon County, Iowa. O. J. grew to manhood in Audubon County, and attended the schools of Exira. He began his mercantile career at the age of eighteen, entering a drygoods store in Atlantic, Iowa, and remaining there nearly five years. Having returned to Exira, he purchased the drug stock of John Hunter, with a view of study ing medicine; this plan was not carried out, but he took up the study of pharmacy, and continued the drug trade until 1880, when he sold the business and went to Fort Collins, intending to engage in business in that place. Not liking Colorado as well as Iowa, he re turned to Audubon County, and formed a partnership with M. N. Graves, of Atlantic, Iowa.In 1881 the firm built a business house in Audubon, and put in a stock of drugs; this partnership continued until 1885, when Mr. Houston bought the interest of his partner, and has since controlled the business alone. Mr. Houston was married May 24, 1877, to Miss Mary Dissmore, of Oakfield; she is the second daughter of Richard and Elizabeth Dissmore. Mr. and Mrs. Houston have one daughter -- Lulu May. Mr. Houston is a member of Exodus Lodge, No. 342, at Exira, and of Amity Chapter, No. 93, and Godfrey Commandery, No. 44.In politics he is conservative.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 803.

BENJAMIN F. HOWALD, one of the leading merchants of Audubon, was born in Holmes County, Ohio, near Shanesville, August 30, 1850.He is the only son in a family of eight children, five of whom still survive. His father was a shoemaker by trade; later Henry Howald became a farmer and contractor in Ohio, and died at the age of eighty years. The mother was Miss Magdalene Triver, a native of Germany, who died when Benjamin was but eleven years old. Mr. Howald received a good common-school education at the district school. He left home at the age of fourteen years, and commenced clerking in a store at Orrville, Ohio, after which he went to Cleveland, where he continued clerking until he was twenty years of age; the firm with whom he was employed did a large business, and with them he acquired a thorough knowledge of business methods, laying the foundation of his future success. In 1870, in company with his father, he came to Chicago, Illinois, and thence made a trip through the south-western States, remaining about two years in Texas, where he engaged in stockraising. He then came to Atlantic, Iowa, where he engaged in the drug business with his brother-in-law, Dr. A. S. Moncrief; he remained here some time, and from Atlantic he came to Audubon where he embarked in the dry goods business on a small scale; this was in November, 1878. He carries a general stock of merchandise, including clothing and gents' furnishing goods; both departments are under Mr. Howald's control. In 1879 he was united in marriage to Miss Eleanor Disbrow, of Atlantic, Iowa, a daughter of Perry Disbrow, now a resident of Lewis, Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Howald have one son George H. Howald. Mr. Howald is a member of Veritas Lodge, No. 392, A. F. & A. M.; and of Godfrey Commandery, and is also a member of the Knights of Pythias, No. 163. Mr. Howald has in the course of erection a fine brick business block, 50x95 feet, two stories in height, with a basement. There are no partitions on the first floor, the ceiling being supported by iron columns, thus leaving the space in one commodious room. The second floor will be fitted up in suites of rooms and offices which will admit of very handsome furnishings, as the building will be finished in good style; it will be substantial throughout, and reflects much credit upon the thrifty young merchant of Audubon. He began his career in a modest way, and the proportions it has assumed is indexed by the large building which is to accommodate the growing trade. Audubon has many fine buildings, and Mr. Howald has given cause for increased pride in this direction.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 750.

FRANK P. HUFFMAN has been identified with the history of Audubon County since 1880. He was born in Clinton County, Ohio, near Wilmington, July 12, 1853, and is the youngest of eight children, four boys and four girls, all of whom are living. His father, William Huffman, was born in the State of Virginia, and is a son of Caleb Huffman. The mother of Frank P. was Elizabeth (Lucas) Huffman, a native of Ohio. Her parents were Caleb and Mary E. (Price) Lucas, who removed from Virginia to Ohio at an early day. William Huffman was a blacksmith by trade, and in later years turned his attention to agriculture. He removedfrom his native State to Clinton County, Ohio, where he married and settled permanently; his death took place in April, 1862.His wife also died on the old homestead in August, 1875. Frank P. Huffman passed his youth and schooldays in his native county. When he became of age he was married, in 1874, to Ella B. Lemar, a daughter of Charles and Adaline (Lemar) Lemar, of Clinton County, Ohio, and settled on the old homestead, which he farmed until 1880. He then removed his family to Audubon County, Iowa, locating upon his present farm; it consists of eighty acres, which was wild prairie land, and unimproved. Mr. Huffman has spent much time and labor in developing this place, and has been well rewarded, as everything is in good shape. Four children have been born to Mr. Huffman and wife Minnie, Joseph M., Zelta V. and James Garfield. The mother passed from this life to her eternal rest in October, 1884. Mr.Huffman has represented his township as trustee, and is the present incumbent of the office. He takes an active interest in the welfare of the Democratic party, and often acts as delegate to judicial and county conventions.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 810.

JOHN J. HUTCHINSON, a farmer and stockraiser of Douglas Township, was born in Clinton County, Ohio, near the town of Harveysburg, October 3, 1836. He is a son of Benjamin and Frances (Rankin) Hutchinson, the father being a native of Ireland, and the mother of Virginia. Benjamin Hutchinson emigrated from the Emerald Isle at the early age of sixteen years, his father being a sailor. He married and settled in Clinton County, Ohio, where he died in 1862. His wife died in 1877; she was the mother of six children, of whom John J. was the fourth. He was reared to farm life in his native county, receiving the advantage of a common-school education. He was married to Eliza A. Mendenhall, the fourth child of Nathan and Mary (Beech) Mendenhall. Mrs. Hutchinson's grandfather was also a Nathan Mendenhall, who was a native of North Carolina. Her grandfather on her mother's side was Benjamin Beech, a native of Connecticut; the Beeches were of Scotch ancestry, and early settlers of Connecticut. After his marriage, John J. Hutchinson settled on a farm in Clinton County, Ohio, and resided there until his removal to Randolph County, Indiana; there he spent three years, and then emigrated to Guthrie County, Iowa.Heafterward re moved to Dallas County, Iowa, and remained there eight years. At the expiration of that time, in 1877, he came to Audubon County, and settled on his present farm. He has 120 acres of choice land, which he has brought to a high state of cultivation; he has a good residence, attractively situated upon an ele vated plain, affording a fine view of the sur rounding country. Mr.Hutchinson has carried ongeneral farming, his livestock being of especially good grades. He and his wife have no children. Politically he is an ardent Republican, often acting as a delegate to the county conventions. He took a part in the famous Morgan's raid in Ohio. He began life without means, but by industry and wise management he has accumulated a considerable property. Mr. Hutchinson en joys the esteem of his neighbors, and is counted one of the reliable citizens of Douglas Township.
   From:  1889 Biographical History of Shelby and Audubon counties, pg. 808.


Contributed by Marthann Kohl-Fuhs, April, 2005.

 
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